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Policing

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policing

These resources explore moral and ethical challenges related to criminal justice in general, and policing in particular. We pay special attention to how God’s creation order and God’s vision for relationships between human beings impacts the field of criminal justice.

Messages and Essays on Policing

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Illusion of Meritocracy in Policing, Part 1 (blog, Dec 3, 2018) explores incidents of police abusing power or covering up criminal acts.

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Illusion of Meritocracy in Policing, Part 2 (blog, Jan 7, 2019) explores how the “War on Drugs” contributed to the racially biased mass incarceration problem.

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Illusion of Meritocracy in Policing, Part 3 (blog, Jan 22, 2019) explores the violent crime rate from the 1950’s - 1990’s, how the black community was unfairly perceived, and why restorative justice could have led to different public and community outcomes.

Books and Articles on PolicingGary Potter, The History of Policing in the United States (Eastern Kentucky University) originating as slave patrols in the South vs. municipal bureaucracies in northern cities

Drug War Facts (website)

Trail of Silence (website) tracking police killings of unarmed civilians from yr 2000

Killed By Police (website)

Guardian UK, The Counted: Police Deaths in the US (Guardian website)

Washington Post, Fatal Force (Washington Post website) a database on police shootings

American Civil Liberties Union, Private Prisons (ACLU website)

Wikipedia, Criminal Stereotype of African-Americans (Wikipedia)

Ted Chiricos, Kelly Welch, Marc Gertz, Racial Typification of Crime and Support for Punitive Measures (Criminology, 2004)

Van Jones, ARE Blacks A Criminal Race? Surprising Statistics (Huffington Post, Oct 5, 2005)

FBI, White Supremacist Infiltration of Law Enforcement (FBI, Oct 17, 2006)

Joshua Correll, et.al., Across the Thin Blue Line: Police Officers and Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2007)

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (Amazon book, Jan 2010)

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (youtube video, Dec 15, 2010) 20 min interview

Noam Chomsky and Glenn Greenwald, How the Law is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful (CSpan video, Oct 29, 2011)

William J. Stuntz, The Collapse of American Criminal Justice (Amazon book, 2011)

The House I Live In (2013), documentary arguing that the U.S. War on Drugs has failed

The Sentencing Project, Race and Punishment: Racial Perceptions of Crime and Support for Punitive Policies (The Sentencing Project, 2014)

Paul Martin, Money-Driven Criminal Justice System Drives Poverty, Crime Rate (The Durham News, Feb 14, 2014)

Carol Rose, Independent Report Confirms Racially Disparate Treatment in Boston (ACLU, Jul 4, 2014)

Michael Bell, What I Did After Police Killed My Son (Politico, Aug 15, 2014)

Lulu Chang, Do Police Shoot Black Men More Often? Statistics Say Yes, Absolutely (Bustle, Aug 18, 2014)

Annie Lowrey and Jesse Singal, There’s a Huge Racial Divide on Crime and Trusting the Police (New York Magazine, Aug 18, 2014)

John Oliver, Ferguson and Police Militarization (Last Week Tonight video, Aug 18, 2014)

Tom McKay, One Troubling Statistic Shows Just How Racist America's Police Brutality Problem Is (Mic, Aug 18, 2014) charts SWAT incidents by race

Michael Daly, Ferguson Feeds Off the Poor: Three Warrants a Year Per Household (Daily Beast, Aug 22, 2014)

Robert Rogers and David DeBolt, Use of Deadly Force by Police Disappears on Richmond Streets (Contra Costa Times, Sep 6, 2014)

Charles M. Blow, Crime, Bias, and Statistics (NY Times, Sep 7, 2014)

Michael Friedman, What Happens When We Don't Trust Law Enforcement? The Importance of Law Enforcement's Role in Our Society's Well-Being (Psychology Today, Sep 9, 2014)

John Oliver, Civil Forfeiture (Last Week Tonight, Oct 5, 2014)

Ta-Nehisi Coates, Barack Obama, Ferguson, and the Evidence of Things Unsaid (The Altantic, Nov 26, 2014)

Judd Legum, The One Word That Kept Darren Wilson Out of Jail (Think Progress, Nov 29, 2015)

Nicholas Kristof, When Whites Just Don't Get It (NY Times, Nov 29, 2014)

Chris Mooney, The Science of Why Cops Shoot Young Black Men (Mother Jones, Dec 1, 2014)

Michelle Alexander, White Privilege and the War on Drugs (video, Dec 2, 2014)

Dave Gilson, Thurgood Marshall Blasted Police for Killing Black Men With Chokeholds (Mother Jones, Dec 4, 2014)

Ian Millhiser, How The Supreme Court Helped Make It Possible For Police To Kill By Chokehold (Think Progress, Dec 4, 2014)

Redditt Hudson, Being a Cop Showed Me Just How Racist and Violent the Police Are. There's Only One Fix (Washington Post, Dec 6, 2014)

Becca Stanek, England Has Avoided Eric Garners and Michael Browns by Doing What the U.S. Won't (Mic, Dec 8, 2014)

Chief Joel F. Shults, Ed.D., Is American Ready for the True Cost of Police Reform? (Police One, Dec 8, 2014)

Ben Swann, The Root of Police Militarization (Truth in Media, Dec 10, 2014)

Michele L. Jawando and Chelsea Parsons, 4 Ideas That Could Begin to Reform the Criminal Justice System and Improve Police-Community Relations (Center for American Progress, Dec 18, 2014)

Shannon Stapleton, Black NYPD Cops Expose Climate of Rampant Racial Profiling in Force (Reuters, Dec 24, 2014)

Moreh B.D.K, Ex NYPD Cop Admits ‘We Planted Evidence, Framed Innocent People’ All For Arrest Quotas (Countercurrent News, Dec 27, 2014)

Prison Culture, Thinking Through the End of Police (Prison Culture, Dec 29, 2014) fascinating proposals, many links to other references

Sam Mitrani, The Police Were Created to Control Working Class and Poor People, Not ‘Serve and Protect’ (Labor and Working Class History Assn, Dec 29, 2014)

Walter Einenkel, Whistleblowing Officer Makes Tape of Top Cop Ordering Stop-and-Frisk of Black Males (Daily Kos, Dec 29, 2014)

Frank Vyan Walton, White Woman Goes on Shooting Spree, Yet Somehow Isn't Automatically Killed by Police (Daily Kos, Dec 30, 2014)

Matt Agorist, Whistleblower Cop Calls Our Corruption in Her Department, Naturally She's Being Fired for It (Free Thought Project, Dec 31, 2014)

Matt Apuzo, Ferguson Police Routinely Violate Rights of Blacks, Justice Dept Finds (NY Times, Mar 3, 2015)

John Vibes, DEA Agent Speaks Out: We Were Told Not to Enforce Drug Laws In Rich Communities (Freethought Project, Mar 10, 2015)

Karen Foshay, When the SWAT Team You Founded Kills Your Son-in-Law (Aljazeera America, Mar 19, 2015)

Stell Simonton, San Antonio, Where Policing the Mentally Ill Means Treating Them (Aljazeera, Mar 31, 2015)

Shaun King, American Police Killed More People in March (111) Than the Entire UK Police Have Killed Since 1900 (Daily Kos, Apr 1, 2015)

Judd Legum, Everything the Police Said About Walter Scott’s Death Before A Video Showed What Really Happened (Think Progress, Apr 7, 2015)

Carimah Townes, New Mexico Is The Second State To Ban Police From Seizing Innocent People’s Property (ThinkProgress, Apr 13, 2015) on civil forfeiture and a few States decisions to decrease it

Ta-Nehisi Coates, The Myth of Police Reform (The Atlantic, Apr 15, 2015)

Valerie Richardson, Police Kill More Whites Than Blacks, But Minority Deaths Generate More Outrage (Washington Times, Apr 21, 2015) although relative to the population (13%), more black people are killed (30%)

Father Gregory Boyle, The Problem with Good Guys vs. Bad Guys Policing (LA Times, Apr 30, 2015)

Kristin Gwynne, Chicago to Pay $5.5 Million in Reparations for Police Torture Victims (Rolling Stone, May 6, 2015) "The free counseling, education and job training services will also apply to the families of victims, including grandchildren, helping to undo the systemic burdens state violence has inflicted on communities. It’s landmark legislation that may provide a template for organizers advocating for justice for police violence in cities across the country." See also Yana Kunichoff and Sarah Macaraeg, How Chicago Became the First City to Make Reparations to Victims of Police Violence (Yes!, Mar 21, 2017) Lindsay Smith, "among the first of at least 120 young, primarily Black men whom Chicago police officers would torture into false confessions... following the passage of historic reparations legislation, he became one of the first Black people in America to be granted reparations for racial violence."  See also Crain's Chicago Business School, How Chicago Racked Up a $662 Million Police Misconduct Bill (Crain's Chicago Business School, Mar 20, 2016) and Hal Dardick, Chicago Still Faces Dozens of Wrongful Conviction Cases (Chicago Tribune, Jan 24, 2017) and Steve Daniels, How Chicago's Financing of Police-Misconduct Payouts Adds Hundreds of Millions to the Tab (Crain's Chicago Business School, Jul 6, 2018) to grasp the cost to the public

German Lopez, How Systemic Racism Entangles All Police Officers - Even Black Cops (Vox, May 7, 2015)

Jeffrey Toobin, The Milwaukee Experiment (New Yorker Magazine, May 11, 2015)

Samuel V. Jones, FBI's Warning of White Supremacists Infiltrating Law Enforcement Nearly Forgotten (The Grio, May 12, 2015)

Yawu Miller, Race Colors Response to Opioid Crisis (Bay State Banner, May 20, 2015)

John Oliver, Municipal Violations (Last Week Tonight, May 22, 2015)

Christopher Moraff, Will Private Money Take the Sting Out of Obama’s Police Demilitarization? (Next City, May 26, 2015)

Redditt Hudson, I'm a Black Ex-Cop, and This Is the Real Truth About Race and Policing (Vox, May 28, 2015)

Bill Quigley, 40 Reasons Why Our Jails Are Full of Black and Brown People (Huffington Post, Jun 2, 2015)

David J. Krajicek, Birth of a Prison State: The Bipartisan Disaster That Puts America Behind Bars (Salon, Jun 4, 2015)

Ta-Nehisi Coates, The Brief and Tragic Life of Kalief Browder (The Atlantic, Jun 8, 2015)

Jon Basil Utley, Why We Need Criminal Justice Reform (The American Conservative, Jul 8, 2015)

Amme Voz, I Thought I'd Escaped Poverty. Then I Went to Prison (The Nation, Jul 13, 2015)

Mekela Panditheratne, When is the Use of Force by Police Reasonable? (The Atlantic, Jul 17, 2015)

George Yancy and Joe Feagin, American Racism in the "White Frame" (NY Times, Jul 27, 2015)

Charles M. Blow, Darren Wilson’s Quest for Distance (NY Times, Aug 6, 2015)

Eric March, A Town in Massachusetts Decided to Stop Arresting Drug Users. 2 Months Later, Here's How It's Going (Upworthy, Aug 18, 2015)

Matt Pearce, Activists Come Up With a Plan to End Police Killings.  Here It Is.  (Los Angeles Times, Aug 21, 2015)

Counter Current News Editorial Team, Cop Who Leaked Video of Fellow Officers Beating Innocent Man Now Faces 7 Years in Prison (CounterCurrent News Aug 31, 2015)

Melissa Chan, Oregon Cop Who Turned in Racist Police Chief for Dancing Like Monkey After Black Woman's Complaint Gets Death Threats (NY Daily News, Sep 9, 2015)

Desire Thompson, Black Banker Forced To Spend Eight Days In Psych Ward After Police Doubt BMW Belonged To Her (News One, Sep 14, 2015)

Ava Kofman, We Don’t Even Know How Best to Use Body Cameras—Let Alone Regulate Them (The Nation, Sep 23, 2015)

Jack Hitt, Police Shootings Won't Stop Unless We Also Stop Shaking Down Black People (Mother Jones, Sep/Oct 2015) re: revenue generation

The Daily Show, The Battle for Less Bias (The Daily Show, Oct 1, 2015)

Sharon LaFraniere and Andrew W. Lehren, The Disproportionate Risks of Driving While Black (NY Times, Oct 24, 2015)

Conor Friedersdorf, The Corrupt System That Killed LaQuan McDonald (The Atlantic, Nov 27, 2015)

Bobby Azarian, The Neuroscience Behind Why White Cops Kill Black Men (Raw Story, Dec 1, 2015)

Arturo Garcia, Bombshell: Alabama Cops Systematically Framed Blacks by Planting Drugs and Guns for Decades (Raw Story, Dec 1, 2015)

Jorge Rivas, It's Time to Admit Police Have a History of Connections with the KKK (Fusion, Dec 16, 2015)

Christopher Ingraham, It's Official: There Never Was a War on Cops (Washington Post, Dec 30, 2015)

Hailey Wallace, The Man Who Killed Tamir Rice (Black Enterprise, Dec 30, 2015) citing emotional instability and systemic failure

Jon Swaine, Oliver Laughland, Jamiles Lartey and Ciara McCarthy, Ties That Bind (Guardian, Dec 31, 2015) district attorneys who clear police officers of killing

Sarah Burris, Stephen Colbert Checks His White Privilege, Switches Seats with DeRay McKesson to Discuss Race, Police, #Blacklivesmatter (Salon, Jan 19, 2016)

Counter Current News Editorial Team, NYPD Cop Kills Off-Duty Cop, Claiming He ‘Thought He Was a Criminal’ (Counter Current News, Jan 24, 2016)

Christopher Ingraham, Why Oklahoma Cops Are Returning $53,000 to a Christian Band, an Orphanage and a Church (Washington Post, Apr 26, 2016)

Gary A. Harki, Norfolk Police Have Shot and Killed Twice as Many People as Any Other Agency in Virginia Since 2010 (Virginian Pilot, Mar 1, 2016)

Victoria M. Massie, Sonia Sotomayor’s Devastating, Ta-Nehisi Coates-Citing Supreme Court Dissent (Vox, Jun 20, 2016) on the 4th Amendment search and seizure

Adam Liptak, Supreme Court Says Police May Use Evidence Found After Illegal Stops (NY Times, Jun 20, 2016)

Mark Gimein, Welcome to the Arrest Capital of the United States (Fusion, Jun 22, 2016) re: New Orleans and Gretna, LA

Philip Bump, The Irony at the Heart of the Dallas Police Deaths After a Black Lives Matter March (Washington Post, Jul 8, 2016)

Christopher Ingraham, Police Are Safer Under Obama Than They Have Been in Decades (Washington Post, Jul 9, 2016)

Olivia Goldhill, How Do Police Handle Violence in Countries Where Officers Don't Carry Guns? (Quartz, Jul 9, 2016)

Peace House, Are You a Racist? Probably (Peace House video, Jul 10, 2016) a humorous short video; compares map of implicit racial bias and map of police shootings of black men

Kia Makarechi, What the Data Really Says About Police and Racial Bias (Vanity Fair, Jul 14, 2016)

The Young Turks, NYPD Captain: You Need To Arrest More Black Guys (youtube video, Jul 15, 2016)

Shaun King, Introducing a 25 Part Series on How to Reduce Police Brutality Following the Deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile (NY Daily News, Jul 23, 2016)

Matthew Segal, Beyond #BlackLivesMatter: Police Reform Must Be Bolstered By Legal Action (Guardian, Jul 27, 2016)

Amanda Marcotte, Radicals With Badges: Mark Potok Explains Why Renegade Sheriffs Are a Growing Threat in the U.S. (Salon, Aug 9, 2016)

Tess Owen, Racial Bias Found in 'Every Stage' of Baltimore Policing (Vice News, Aug 10, 2016); David A. Graham, The Horror of the Baltimore Police Department (The Atlantic, Aug 10, 2016); German Lopez, The Justice Department's Incredibly Damning Report on Baltimore Police, Explained (Vox, Aug 10, 2016)

German Lopez, The Tyranny of a Traffic Ticket: How Small Crimes Turn Fatal for Poor, Minority Americans (Vox, Aug 10, 2016)

NY Times Editorial Board, When Police Unions Impede Justice (NY Times, Sep 3, 2016)

Shaun King, White Men All Over America Continue to Kill Police - Where's the Conservative Outrage? (NY Daily News, Sep 6, 2016)

Frontline, Policing the Police (Frontline, WGBH, PBS) a collection of very good articles

The Young Turks, Cop Fired for NOT Killing Someone (The Young Turks, Sep 14, 2016)

C.E. Dyer, BREAKING: Truth About Terence Crutcher Comes Out… It’s BAD for the Media (Conservative Tribune, Sep 21, 2016) while it is true he had lowered his right hand, this is an attempt to discredit Crutcher based on his past; does one need to be a saint to have rights?; also an attempt to discredit "media" despite same day coverage which did acknowledge his criminal record like Chicago Tribune, Terence Crutcher Was Turning His Life Around Before Fatal Tulsa Police Shooting, Family Says (Chicago Tribune, Sep 21, 2016)

Joel Handley, Inside the Chicago Police Department's Secret Budget (Chicago Reader, Sep 29, 2016)

Trevor Noah, Stop and Frisk (The Daily Show, Sep 30, 2016)

John Oliver, Police Accountability (Last Week Tonight, Oct 2, 2016)

Nathan Wellman, Georgia Cops Caught Bragging About Targeting Black Drivers in Insanely Racist Facebook Messages (US Uncut, Oct 5, 2016)

Jamie Kalven, Operation Smoke and Mirrors: In the Chicago Police Department, If the Bosses Say It Didn’t Happen, It Didn’t Happen (Intercept, Oct 6, 2016)

Lara Bazelon, Pennsylvania's Shame (Slate, Oct 12, 2016) ill-trained police, underpaid defense attorneys, wrongful convictions

Sarah Larimer, "You Can't Hit a Girl Like That!" Officer Caught on Camera Punching Woman in the Face (Washington Post, Nov 17, 2016)

Joe Domanick, Let’s Listen to Cops—If We Want Real Policing Reform (The Crime Report, Dec 14, 2016)

Julia Craven, Black People Are Way More Likely To Be Killed By Police Than Their White Peers: Study (Huffington Post, Dec 20, 2016)

Monique Judge, New Missouri Statute Ensures Children Are Fed Into the School-to-Prison Pipeline (The Root, Dec 21, 2016)

Jacqueline Howard, Black Men Nearly 3 Times as Likely to Die from Police Use of Force, Study Says (CNN, December 20, 2016) cites important studies about racial bias

Alice Speri, Down to the Wire: Obama's DOJ Issues Scathing Report on Systemic Abuse Within Chicago Police (The Intercept, Jan 13, 2017)

Tanya Arditi, In Sanctuary Counties, Crime is Significantly Lower and Economies are Stronger Than in Comparable Nonsanctuary Ones, Says New CAP-NILC Report (Center for American Progress, Jan 26, 2017) although surely there are far too many variables that affect the relationship between crime and sanctuary city status?

Alice Speri, The FBI Has Quietly Investigated White Supremacist Infiltration of Law Enforcement (The Intercept, Jan 31, 2017) but meanwhile Julia Edwards Ainsley, Dustin Volz and Kristina Cooke, Trump to Focus Counter-Extremism Program Solely on Islam (Reuters, Feb 2, 2017)

Sarah Mervosh, A Black Dallas Family 'Did Everything America Said We Should' But Still Endures Racism Daily (Dallas News, Feb 5, 2017)

Simone Weischelbaum, Sessions May Resist Federal Oversight of Police, But There’s Another Option (The Marshall Project, Feb 5, 2017) CA attorney general can sue local police depts

Eric Lichtblau, Sessions Indicates Justice Department Will Stop Monitoring Troubled Police Agencies (NY Times, Feb 28, 2017)

Neil Bedi and Connie Humberg, Police Are More Likely to Shoot If You're Black (Tampa Bay Times, Apr 4, 2017) very detailed analysis of Florida police stats

David French, The Unwritten Law That Helps Bad Cops Go Free (National Review, Jun 21, 2017) fear is not reasonable fear

Matt Ford, The Bipartisan Opposition to Sessions's New Civil-Forfeiture Rules (The Atlantic, Jul 19, 2017) and Lucy Steigerwald, Jeff Sessions: Feds Have the Right to Seize Your Cash, Property (The American Conservative, Jul 21, 2017)

The Young Turks, Why Michele Bachmann Suddenly Cares About Police Shootings (The Young Turks, Jul 20, 2017) criticizes MN Governor Dayton for saying, "If you don't like it, you can leave" about Somali and Muslim population growth in St.Cloud (which is usually deployed towards black and brown people in inner cities); and then wants to make cultural questions relevant

Philip Giraldi, Feds Deploy Massive ‘Pre-Crime’ Dragnet on Millions of Americans (The American Conservative, Jul 21, 2017)

Kevin Rector, Prosecutors Dismiss 34 Gun and Drug Cases Amid Body Camera Investigation (Baltimore Sun, Jul 28, 2017)

Monique Judge, Cop Shares Racist Facebook Post, Will Resign After Public Outcry (The Root, Aug 1, 2017)

Paul Butler, US Justice is Built to Humiliate and Oppress Black Men, and It Starts With the Chokehold (The Guardian, Aug 11, 2017)

Shaun King, Soul Snatchers: How the NYPD’s 42nd Precinct, the Bronx DA’s Office, and the City of New York Conspired to Destroy Black and Brown Lives (Part 1) (Medium, Aug 21, 2017)

German Lopez, American Policing is Broken. Here's How to Fix It (Vox, Sep 1, 2017)

Jeremy Stahl, This Judge’s Excuses for Acquitting Jason Stockley of Murder Are Pathetic (Slate, Sep 15, 2017) Judge Timothy J. Wilson acquits police officer Jason Stockley from St. Louis.

Amanda Ripley, A Big Test of Police Body Cameras Defies Expectations (NY Times, Oct 20, 2017) surprisingly little effect on police behavior

David McFadden, Ex-Baltimore Detectives Testify About Force's Robberies, Illegal Activities (USA Today, Jan 29, 2018)

David A. Graham, What It Takes to Actually Convict Police of Misconduct(The Atlantic, Feb 13, 2018)

Joseph Goldstein, "Testilying" by Police: A Stubborn Problem (NY Times, Mar 18, 2018)

Trevor Noah, An Alabama Sheriff Legally Siphons Cash From Inmates (The Daily Show, Mar 28, 2018)

German Lopez, Stephon Clark Was Shot by Sacramento Police Eight Times From Behind or the Side, Autopsy Finds (Vox, Mar 30, 2018) includes discussion of racial bias among police officers

German Lopez, Christina Animashaun, and Javier Zarracina, How America Has — and Hasn’t — Changed Since Martin Luther King Jr.’s Death, in 11 charts (Vox, Apr 4, 2018) From economic well-being to criminal justice issues, racial inequality is still very real in America.

P.R. Lockhart, After the Harith Augustus Shooting, Chicago’s Policing Problems Are Back in the Spotlight (Vox, Apr 4, 2018) a short history of the Chicago police's problems, including the 2017 DOJ Report of their violation of the 4th Amendment 

Kathleen Frydl, Why We Should Abolish ICE - and the DEA Too (Vox, Apr 14, 2018) talks about how a punitive organizational purpose and lack of measurable outcomes and accountability shapes recruitment and the behavior of personnel hired

Al Baker, Confronting Implicit Bias in the New York Police Department (NY Times, Jul 15, 2018) although see also Greg Ridgeway, Analysis of Racial Disparities in the New York Police Department's Stop, Question, and Frisk Practices (RAND Corporation, 2007)

Jamie Kalven, Chicago Faces a Defining Moment in Police Reform and Civil Order (The Intercept, Aug 15, 2018) the first of five articles; Part 3: "130 Chicago Officers Account for 29 Percent of Police Shootings."  Part 4:  "Chicago Police Are 14 Times More Likely to Use Force Against Young Black Men Than Against Whites."

Elyssa Cherney, Ex-Chicago Cop Sentenced to 25 Years in Sex Trafficking of Young Girls (Chicago Tribune, Sep 13, 2018) and Patrick O'Connell, Chicago Chicago Cop's Use of Condoms Made Outside of Illinois Allowed Prosecutors to Pursue Federal Sex Crime Charges (Chicago Tribune, May 18, 2018) 

The Young Turks, Cops Blow the Doors Off Black People's Houses in Arkansas (The Young Turks, Oct 24, 2018) re: no-knock warrants used in drug searches, often with explosives to blow doors open; 110 people out of 133 were black; residents left to pay for the damages

David French, Another Police Shooting Raises Hard Questions about Police Restraint (National Review, Nov 13, 2018) significant for its admission, from a conservative source, that "a good guy with a gun" backfires for black men.  Katherine Timpf, Jemel Roberson’s Death Is an American Tragedy (National Review, Nov 15, 2018)

Conor Friedersdorf, Sadism in the St. Louis Police Department (The Atlantic, Dec 3, 2018)

Monica Davey, Police ‘Code of Silence’ Is on Trial After Murder by Chicago Officer (NY Times, Dec 3, 2018)

Daniel Victor, Black Man Killed by Police in Alabama Was Shot From Behind, Autopsy Shows (NY Times, Dec 4, 2018)

Lee Fang, Trump's Pick for Attorney General Pushed for Military Strikes on Drug Traffickers, Questioned Asylum Law (The Intercept, Dec 7, 2018) and Martin Matishak, Rand Paul 'Disturbed' by Attorney General Nominee's Views (Politico, Dec 9, 2018) re: William Barr, nominated by Trump; views on Patriot Act, civil asset forfeiture

David A. Graham, Process Crimes and Misdemeanors (The Atlantic, Dec 14, 2018) some interesting insights on Rudy Giuliani's mayoral policy in NYC, focusing on "broken windows" policing

The Young Turks, Supreme Court Makes Major Ruling on Constitution (The Young Turks, Feb 21, 2019) a unanimous decision against civil asset forfeiture, because the Constitution bans "excessive fines"

Sarah Ruiz-Grossman, Study Finds Racial Bias In Police Traffic Stops And Searches (Huffington Post, Mar 19, 2019) 

Rob Arthur, New Data Shows Police Use More Force Against Black Citizens Even Though Whites Resist More (Slate, May 30, 2019)

Katie Rose Quandt, Floridians Are Suing a Cop Fired for Planting Drugs in Their Vehicles (Truth Out, Jun 20, 2019) re: sheriff’s deputy Zachary Wester

Christian restorative justice and criminal justice: Topics

Christian restorative justice critique of the right: domestic policy topics

Christian restorative justice critique of the right: philosophical influences