Wealth Inequality

Photo credit: This is a combination of two graphics. The coins are from PublicDomainPictures | Pixabay License. The wealth inequality graph comes from the Urban Institute, based on 2016 data from the Survey of Financial Characteristics of Consumers 1962 (December 31), Survey of Changes in Family Finances 1963, and Survey of Consumer Finances 1983–2016. Wikideas1 | CC0, Wikipedia.


wealth inequality

These resources explore God’s creation order and its meaning as God’s vision for relationships between human beings, and also between human beings and the created world.

Messages and Essays on Wealth Inequality

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Myth of Meritocracy in Housing, Part 1 (blog, Nov 3, 2018)

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Myth of Meritocracy in Housing, Part 2 (blog, Nov 5, 2018)

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Myth of Meritocracy in Schooling, Part 1 (blog, Nov 12, 2018)

Sangwon Yang and Mako Nagasawa, The Myth of Meritocracy in Schooling, Part 2 (blog, Nov 19, 2018)

Books and Articles on Wealth Inequality

Wealth Inequality (Inequality.org website)

Earl Shorris, As a Weapon in the Hands of the Restless Poor (Harper's Magazine, Sep 1997)

Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich (Amazon book, 2002)

Jonathan Kozol, Shame of the Nation: Restoring Apartheid Schooling in America (Amazon book, 2005)

Travis Plunkett and Karen Kavanaugh, Financial Security and Mobility, Economic Mobility Project (Pew Research Trust)

The Racial Gap Increases Fourfold, Institute on Assets and Policy at Brandeis, May 2010 (Brandeis University, 2010)

The U.S. Income Gap Triples, 1979 - 2007 (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Jun 25 2010)

Wealth Inequality in America (6 minute youtube video, Nov 20, 2012)

Joseph Stiglitz, The Great Divide (NY Times, 2012 - 2014), a series on inequality — the haves, the have-nots and everyone in between — in the United States and around the world, and its implications for economics, politics, society and culture

Stacey Patton, The Ph.D. Now Comes With Food Stamps (Chronicle of Higher Education, May 6, 2012)

Heather Stewart, Wealth Doesn't Trickle Down - It Just Floods Offshore, Study Reveals (The Guardian, Jul 21, 2012)

Kenneth Rapoza, The China Miracle: A Rising Wealth Gap (Forbes, Jan 20, 2013)

Associated Press, Silicon Valley Adds Tech Jobs, Homeless (FoxNews, Mar 11, 2013)

The U.S. Income Gap Highest Ever (Boston Globe, Sep 28, 2010)

Joseph Stiglitz, Equal Opportunity, Our National Myth (NY Times, Feb 16, 2013)

Scott Timberg, Jason Lanier: The Internet Destroyed the Middle Class (Salon, May 12, 2013)

UBC Media Release, Poverty Impairs Cognitive Function (UBC News, Aug 29, 2013)

Elizabeth Warren, The Coming Collapse of the Middle Class (youtube video, Feb 1, 2008)

Jason DeParle, Harder for Americans to Rise from Lower Rungs (NY Times, Jan 4, 2012)

Dorothy Brown, How Home Ownership Keeps Blacks Poorer Than Whites (Forbes, Dec 10, 2012)

Chuck Collins, 99 to 1: How Wealth Inequality Is Wrecking the World and What We Can Do about It (2012)

Chuck Collins, Wealth Inequality, Inherited Advantage, and Declining Mobility (Inequality.org, May 29, 2013)

C.W. and A.J.K.D., Get a Life (The Economist, Sep 24, 2013) on working hours and productivity

Richard Reeve, The Glass Floor Problem (NY Times, Sep 29, 2013) about social mobility

Derek Thompson, How America's Marriage Crisis Makes Income Inequality So Much Worse (The Atlantic, Oct 2, 2013)

Annie Lowrey, Switzerland's Proposal to Pay People for Being Alive (NY Times, Nov 12, 2013)

Jenny Shank, Utah Is on Track to End Homelessness by 2015 With This One Simple Idea (Nation Swell, Dec 19, 2013)

Dylan Matthews, Everything You Need to Know About the War on Poverty (Washington Post wonkblog, Jan 8, 2014)

Economist, Sex, Brains, and Inequality: How Sexual Equality Increases the Gap Between Rich and Poor Households (Economist, Feb 6, 2014)

Mark Gongloff, Inequality Is So Bad Even the Super-Rich Are Getting Left Behind (Huffington Post, Feb 11, 2014)

Robin Hayes, Why Ivy League Schools Are So Bad at Economic Diversity (The Atlantic, Feb 27, 2014)

Paul Krugman, Why We're in a New Gilded Age (NY Times review of books, Mar 8, 2014)

Thomas Frank, There is No Meritocracy: It's Just the 1% and the Game is Rigged (Slate, Mar 16, 2014)

Richard Florida, The U.S. Cities Where the Poor Are Most Segregated From Everyone Else (The Atlantic Cities, Mar 24, 2014)

Mike Konczal, The Voluntarism Fantasy: Conservatives dream of returning to a world where private charity fulfilled all public needs, but that world never existed (Democracy Journal, Spring 2014)

Andrew Bouve, What if Walmart Paid Its Employees More? (video, Apr 3, 2014)

Christopher Bergland, Social Disadvantage Creates Genetic Wear and Tear (Psychology Today, Apr 15, 2014)

Maxwell Strachan, The U.S. Is Even More Unequal Than You Realized (Huffington Post, May 1, 2014)

Mark Mellman, Why the Poor Can Have "Things" But Can't Escape Poverty (blog, May 16, 2014)

Nick Hanauer, The Pitchforks Are Coming...For Us Plutocrats (Politico, Jul/Aug 2014)

Mark Gongloff, The South is Essentially a Solid, Grim Block of Poverty (Huffington Post, Jul 2, 2014)

John Oliver, Wealth Inequality (Last Week Tonight, Jul 13, 2014)

Tyler Cowen, Income Inequality Is Not Rising Globally. It's Falling. (NY Times, Jul 19, 2014)

Daniel Little, Tyler Cowen on Global Inequality (Understanding Society blog, Jul 20, 2014)

Nicholas Kristof, An Idiot's Guide to Inequality (NY Times, Jul 23, 2014)

Stephen Mihm, Where Slavery Thrived, Inequality Rules Today (Boston Globe, Aug 24, 2014)

Paul Krugman, Republicans Aren't Willing to Do the One Thing That Would Help Solve Poverty (Business Insider, Sep 22, 2014)

Charles Marohn, The Conservative Case Against the Suburbs (The American Conservative, Oct 15, 2014)

Pedro Nicolaci Da Costa, Janet Yellen Decries Widening Income Inequality Central Bank Chief Says Wealth Disparity Could Be Impeding Economic Mobility (Wall Street Journal, Oct 19, 2014)

Linda Tirado, Why Poor People Stay Poor (Slate, Dec 5, 2014)

Sally Kohn, Stop Denying the Gender Pay Gap Exists. Even Jennifer Lawrence Was Shortchanged. (Washington Post, Dec 17, 2014)

Jodi Kantor, A Brand New World in Which Men Ruled (NY Times, Dec 23, 2014) re: Stanford Class of 1994 and the gender pay gap in high-tech

Faith Karimi, Oxfam: Top 1% Will Own More Than Everyone Else (CNN, Jan 19, 2015)

Economist, America’s New Aristocracy: As the importance of intellectual capital grows, privilege has become increasingly heritable (Economist, Jan 24, 2015)

Penn Loh, How One Boston Neighborhood Stopped Gentrification in Its Tracks (Yes! Magazine, Jan 28, 2015) re: Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative

Quoctrung Bui, The Fall and Rise of U.S. Inequality, In 2 Graphs (NPR, Feb 11, 2015)

Peter R. Orszag, To Fight Inequality, Tax Land (Bloomberg View, Mar 3, 2015)

Ana Swanson, Max Roser, The Source of American Inequality in One Graph (Washington Post, Mar 9, 2015) on the Gini coefficient

Benjamin Schwarz, Building an Underclass (The American Conservative, Mar 25, 2015) How urban planners helped demolish Britain's working families

Laura Shin, The Racial Wealth Gap: Why A Typical White Household Has 16 Times The Wealth Of A Black One (Forbes, Mar 26, 2015) homeownership #1; education #2; labor markets #3

Christopher Jencks, The War on Poverty - Was It Lost? (The New York Review of Books, Apr 2, 2015)

Connor Kilpatrick, Let Them Eat Privilege: Focusing On Privilege Diverts Attention Away from the Real Villains (Jacobin Magazine, Apr 11, 2015)

Orion Jones, For Biggest Economic Bang, Give Middle Class a Windfall (Big Think blog, Apr 2015)

Ana Patricia Munoz, et.al., The Color of Wealth in Boston (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Apr 27, 2015)

Richard Rothstein, From Ferguson to Baltimore: The Fruits of Government-Sponsored Segregation (Economic Policy Institute, Apr 29, 2015)

Annie Lowrey, David Brooks Isn't Buying Your Excuses, Poor People (New York Magazine, May 1, 2015)

Gregor Aisch, et.al., The Best and Worst Places to Grow Up: How Your Area Compares (NY Times, May 3, 2015)

Robert Reich, America's Economy is a Nightmare of Our Own Making (Salon, May 3, 2015)

Terrence McCoy, Meet the Outsider Who Accidentally Solved Chronic Homelessness (Washington Post, May 6, 2015)

Steve Roth, No: Rich People Don't Work More (Asymptosis blog, May 11, 2015)

Jason Furman, Smart Social Programs (NY Times, May 11, 2015)

Sam Fleming and Demetri Sevastopulo, US Economic Recovery Masks Tale of Many Cities (Financial Times, May 26, 2015)

Press Association, Well-Off Families Create Glass Floor to Ensure Children's Success, Says Study (The Guardian, Jul 26, 2015)

Stan Sorscher, Inequality — “X” Marks the Spot — Dig Here (Huffington Post, Jul 29, 2015) about cultural change around 1975, but what about legal?

Mike Konczal, How the Rich Can Keep Their Homes, Businesses, Artwork, and Wealth Tax-Free—Forever (The Nation, Jul 30, 2015)

Sam Fleming and Shawn Donnan, America's Middle Class Meltdown: Core Shrinks to Half of U.S. Homes (Financial Times, Dec 9, 2015)

University of Maryland, Society's Level of Mobility Influences How Members Treat Outsiders (University of Maryland, Dec 10, 2015)

Ben Casselman and Andrew Flowers, Rich Kids Stay Rich, Poor Kids Stay Poor (FiveThirtyEight, Feb 1, 2016)

Stacey Tisdale, The Black Elite: A Look Inside Black America’s Widening Wealth Gap (Black Enterprise, Mar 8, 2016)

Katie Johnston, Half of City's Residents Make Less Than $35,000 a Year, Study Says (Boston Globe, Mar 15, 2016)

Heather Knight, What San Franciscans Know About Homeless Isn't Necessarily True (San Francisco Chronicle, Apr 1, 2016)

Katha Pollitt, Evicted by Matthew Desmond Review – What If the Problem of Poverty Is That It's Profitable to Other People? (The Guardian, Apr 7, 2016)

Michael A. McCarthy, Don’t the Rich Deserve to Keep Their Money? (Jacobin Magazine, Apr 18, 2016)

Thomas B. Edsall, How the Other Fifth Lives (NY Times, Apr 27, 2016) about the self-segregation of the wealthy  

Robert H. Frank, Why Luck Matters More Than You Might Think (The Atlantic, May 2016) subtitled "When people see themselves as self-made, they tend to be less generous and public-spirited"

Dean Mosiman and Doug Erickson, Minnesota Provides Ample Funding, Leadership, Direct Approach on Homelessness (Wisconsin State Journal, Jun 5, 2016)  

Dennis Rasmussen, The Problem With Inequality, According to Adam Smith (The Atlantic, Jun 9, 2016) subtitled "The allure of extreme wealth can contort human sympathies, causing the public to admire the wealthy and shun the poor"

David H. Freedman, The War on Stupid People: American Society Increasingly Mistakes Intelligence for Human Worth (The Atlantic, Jul/Aug 2016)

C. Nicole Mason, The What Causes Poverty? Not a Lack of Money, But a Lack of Social Relationships (Big Think, Aug 24, 2016)

Molly Redden and Jana Kasperkevic, Wage Gap Between White and Black Americans Is Worse Today Than in 1979 (Guardian, Sep 20, 2016)

Chuck Collins, Born on Third Base: A One Percenter Makes the Case for Tackling Inequality, Bringing Wealth Home, and Committing to the Common Good (Amazon book, Sep 23, 2016)

Derek Thompson, Obama's War on Inequality (The Atlantic, Sep 26, 2016)

David Leonhardt, The American Dream, Quantified at Last (NY Times, Dec 8, 2016) and Bill Chappell, U.S. Kids Far Less Likely To Out-Earn Their Parents, As Inequality Grows (NPR, Dec 9, 2016) about intergenerational mobility

Trymaine Lee, Geography of Poverty: A Journey Through Forgotten America (MSNBC News, Dec 2016)

The Economist, Place-Based Economic Policies as a Response to Populism (The Economist, Dec 15, 2016) with helpful comparison US vs. EU; noting history of land-grant universities

James Watkins, The Man Behind the Most Important Chart of 2016 (The Daily Dose, Dec 19, 2016)

Neil Gilbert, Prosperity, Not Upward Mobility, Is What Matters (The Atlantic, Jan 5, 2017)

Larry Elliot, World's Eight Richest People Have Same Wealth as Poorest 50% (Guardian, Jan 15, 2017)

Alana Semuels, America’s Great Divergence (The Atlantic, Jan 30, 2017)

Dunja Djudjic, Dramatic Drone Photos Show a Difference Between the Rich and the Poor (DIY Photography, Feb 1, 2017)

Peter Coy, The Big Reason Whites Are Richer Than Blacks in America (Bloomberg, Feb 8, 2017)

Adrian Florido, Black, Latino Two-Parent Families Have Half The Wealth Of White Single Parents (NPR, Feb 8, 2017)

Janelle Jones, The Racial Wealth Gap: How African-Americans Have Been Shortchanged Out of the Materials to Build Wealth (Economic Policy Institute, Feb 13, 2017)

Walter Scheidel, The Only Thing, Historically, That's Curbed Inequality: Catastrophe (The Atlantic, Feb 21, 2017)

Brian S. Feldman, The Decline of Black Business (Washington Monthly, Mar/Apr/May 2017) "and what it means for American democracy" illuminates the relationship between economic independence and political liberty

Zack Beauchamp, No Easy Answers: Why Left-Wing Economics Is Not the Answer to Right-Wing Populism (Vox, Mar 13, 2017) but critiqued by Marshall Steinbaum, No Easy Answers, Just Bad History (Jacobin Magazine, Mar 17, 2017)

Chris Ladd, Unspeakable Realities Block Universal Health Coverage In The US (Forbes, Mar 13, 2017) on "white socialism"

Janine Jackson, Housing, Community and Land Are Human Rights(Truthout, Mar 24, 2017)

Abby McCloskley, The American Dream Hinges on Family (National Review, Apr 13, 2017)

Lynn Parramore, America is Regressing into a Developing Nation for Most People (Institute for New Economic Thinking, Apr 20, 2017)

Marshall Steinbaum, Why Are Economists Giving Piketty the Cold Shoulder? (Boston Review, May 12, 2017)

Thom Hartmann, Richard Wolff: A Labor Manifesto for the Global Left (The Big Picture RT, May 16, 2017)

Economic Policy Institute, The Agenda to Raise America’s Pay (Economic Policy Institute, May 2017)

A.Q. Smith, It's Basically Just Immoral to be Rich (Current Affairs, Jun 14, 2017) argues that the right to retain is different from the right to acquire

Julie Zauzmer, Christians Are More Than Twice as Likely to Blame a Person's Poverty on Lack of Effort (Washington Post, Aug 3, 2017), because, I argue, white evangelicals believe in penal substitution and therefore believe that God's highest justice is meritocratic-retributive; see alsoMatthew Rozsa, Fox News Guest: Food Stamp Recipients Are "Watching Porn" Instead of Working (Salon, Jan 2, 2019) as an example of how discrediting someone's work ethic makes an argument assuming that meritocracy is factual and virtuous 

Dylan Matthews, You're Not Imagining It: The Rich Really Are Hoarding Economic Growth (Vox, Aug 8, 2017) very helpful charts about income growth

Noah Smith, How the Top 1% Keeps Getting Richer (Bloomberg, Aug 28, 2017) less in land and more in stocks

Rachel M. Cohen, This Is the Wrong Way to Fight Inequality (New Republic, Aug 3, 2017) a review of Richard Reeves, Dream Hoarder, which has good examples of economic and legal barriers the middle and upper classes erect to protect privilege

Amy Goodman, Yanis Varoufakis on Global Capitalism & How Trump’s Tax Plan is Class War Against the Poor (NPR, Nov 3, 2017)

Noah Kirsch, The 3 Richest Americans Hold More Wealth Than Bottom 50% Of The Country, Study Finds (Forbes, Nov 9, 2017)

Tanza Loudenback, According to One Estimate, Wealthy Couples in NYC Need $190 Million to Keep Their Heads Above Water (Business Insider, Nov 17, 2017)

Katharine Schwab, The Airbnb For Affordable Housing Is Here (Co.Design, Nov 21, 2017) 

Ryan D. Enos, How Segregation Leads to Racist Voting by Whites (Vox, Nov 28, 2017)

Helaine Olen, Why Don't America's Rich Give More to Charity? (The Atlantic, Dec 16, 2017)

Sunbeam Television, Study: Massachusetts Single Parents Spend More Than 70 Percent of Income on Child Care (News 7 Boston, Dec 27, 2017)

Noah Smith, Land is Underrated as a Source of Wealth (Bloomberg, Jan 2, 2018)

Henry Grabar, California Bill Would Allow Unrestricted Housing by Transit, Solve State Housing Crisis (Slate, Jan 5, 2018)

Rachel M. Cohen, The Fight for the Suburbs (New Republic, Jan 17, 2018)

Aaron Glantz and Emmanuel Martinez, Kept Out: How Banks Block People of Color from Homeownership (AP, Feb 15, 2018)

Jason Silverstein, Trump's Alternative to Food Stamps Is Unrealistic, Unhealthy, and Offensive (Tonic, Feb 15, 2018)

Tom Keane, Let's Face It. There Will Never Be Room for the Middle Class in Boston (Boston Globe, Feb 20, 2018)

Emily Badger, Claire Cain Miller, Adam Pearce, and Kevin Quealy, Extensive Data Shows Punishing Reach of Racism for Black Boys (NY Times, Mar 19, 2018)

Ralph Richard Banks, An End to the Class vs. Race Debate (NY Times, Mar 21, 2018) cites Raj Chetty's research at the Equality of Opportunity Project

Alieza Durana, Stop Tackling Poverty (Slate, Mar 27, 2018)

Alana Semuels, Chicago's Awful Divide (The Atlantic, Mar 28, 2018)

German Lopez, Christina Animashaun, and Javier Zarracina, How America Has — and Hasn’t — Changed Since Martin Luther King Jr.’s Death, in 11 charts (Vox, Apr 4, 2018) From economic well-being to criminal justice issues, racial inequality is still very real in America. 

Maura Dolan, Prior Salary Can't Justify Wage Gap Between Men and Women, U.S. Appeals Court Rules (Los Angeles Times, Apr 9, 2018)

Paul Heideman, Socialism and Black Oppression (Jacobin Magazine, Apr 2018)

The Atlantic, The 99% Is a Myth—Here's How It Breaks Down (The Atlantic, May 16, 2018) a 3 minute video about the 9.9% which comprises the new aristocracy because of income mobility loss, based on the article byMatthew Stewart, The 9.9 Percent Is the New American Aristocracy (The Atlantic, June 2018) although critiqued by Jordan Weissmann, Actually, the 1 Percent Are Still The Problem (Slate, May 18, 2018)

Alec MacGillis, Why Do Americans Stay When Their Town Has No Future? (Bloomberg, May 23, 2018) about the importance of place-based economics and the sympathies of the public when it affects white people

Emily Peck, Everyone Is Missing A Key Reason The U.S. Birth Rate Is Declining In the U.S. (Huffington Post, May 27, 2018) women are essentially punished for having kids 

Lynn Parramore, Meet the Economist Behind the One Percent’s Stealth Takeover of America (Institute for New Economic Thinking, May 30, 2018) "Nobel laureate James Buchanan is the intellectual linchpin of the Koch-funded attack on democratic institutions, argues Duke historian Nancy MacLean"

Jessica McCrory Calarco, Why Rich Kids Are So Good at the Marshmallow Test (The Altantic, Jun 1, 2018) Affluence—not willpower—seems to be what’s behind some kids' capacity to delay gratification

The Atlantic, Healing the Divide: An Atlantic Forum on Health Equity (The Atlantic, Jun 13, 2018)

Douglas Rushkoff, Survival of the Richest (Medium, Jul 5, 2018) re: how the ultra-wealthy want safety and immortality as an escape from the rest of humanity

Estelle Sommeiller and Mark Price, The New Gilded Age: Income Inequality in the U.S. by State, Metropolitan Area, and County (Economic Policy Institute, Jun 19, 2018)

Madison Matthews and Valerie Wilson, Separate Is Still Unequal: How Patterns of Occupational Segregation Impact Pay for Black Women (Economic Policy Institute, Aug 6, 2018) the myth of meritocracy shows itself to be a myth

Nick Surgey, Zaid Jilani, The Koch Brothers Commissioned a Survey of Americans and Found Most Like a $15 Minimum Wage, Free College, and Universal Health Care (The Intercept, Aug 9, 2018)

Thomas Koulopoulos, Success Harvard, Stanford, and MIT Researchers Study 1 Million Inventors To Find Secret To Success, And It's Not Talent (Inc., Aug 14, 2018) entrepreneurs are white, male, with rich parents; the myth of meritocracy shows itself to be a myth

Peter Georgescu, America's Real Economy: It Isn't Booming (Forbes, Aug 22, 2018)

Robert D. Martin, The Macho Sperm Myth (Aeon, Aug 23, 2018) “The idea that millions of sperm are on an Olympian race to reach the egg is yet another male fantasy of human reproduction” how men perceive biology through the lens of the myth of meritocracy

Andrew Yang, Success in America Has Nothing To Do With Hard Work - and We're in the Middle of a 'War on Normal People' (Business Insider, Sep 1, 2018) the myth of meritocracy shows itself to be a myth

Matthew Desmond, Americans Want to Believe Jobs Are the Solution to Poverty. They’re Not. (NY Times, Sep 11, 2018) the myth of meritocracy shows itself to be a myth

Noah Smith, Ben Carson and HUD Get Ready to Take On the Nimbys (Bloomberg, Sep 12, 2018) proposal to roll back "not in my backyard" zoning rules to allow more housing development

Ted Knutson, Retirement Is In Peril For Most Working Class Americans, Warns New Report (Forbes, Sep 17, 2018) nearly four of five working Americans are falling short of retirement savings targets, partly as a lingering effect of the financial crisis of 2008

Joe Pinsker, ‘I Got Into Yale’ Isn’t a Moral Defense (The Atlantic, Sep 28, 2018) subtitled "When Brett Kavanaugh found his conduct in question on Thursday, he twice responded by referring to his Ivy League degrees" highlighting the rhetoric of "meritocracy" used to disguise inherited wealth"

Mehrsa Baradaran and Darrick Hamilton, Elizabeth Warren’s New Housing Proposal Is Actually a Brilliant Plan to Close the Racial Wealth Gap (Slate, Oct 26, 2018)

Jovanka Beckles, Solving California's Housing Crisis (Jacobin Magazine, Nov 5, 2018)

Joseph E. Stiglitz, The American Economy is Rigged (Smithsonian, Nov 1, 2018)

Alana Semuels, Amazon’s HQ2 Will Only Worsen America’s "Great Divergence" (The Atlantic, Nov 13, 2018)

Sarah Jones, There’s More Evidence That Welfare Work Requirements Don’t Lift People Out of Poverty (NY Magazine, Nov 13, 2018)

John Harwood, These Charts Show How Democrats Represent the Growing Modern Economy – and How Republicans Are Left Behind (CNBC, Nov 15, 2018) comparison by districts

Christopher Ingraham, Politicians Have Caused a Pay 'Collapse' for the Bottom 90% of Workers, Researchers Say (Washington Post, Dec 17, 2018) "While many economists pin much of the blame for wage stagnation on impersonal market forces, such as free trade and technological change, EPI’s Josh Bivens and Heidi Shierholz contend that specific policy decisions — including efforts to weaken unions, the decay of the minimum wage and monetary policy that prioritizes low inflation over full employment — are responsible for tilting the balance of power away from workers and toward their employers."

Christopher Ingraham, Companies' Pursuit of High Profits is Making the Rich Richer at Everyone Else’s Expense, According to New Research(Washington Post, Dec 31, 2018) "In 2016, U.S. companies' pursuit of bigger profits through higher prices transferred three percentage points of national income from the pockets of low-income and middle-class families to the wealthy, according to new research on market concentration and inequality. The study, forthcoming in the Oxford Review of Economic Policy, examines how growing corporate power, particularly in industries dominated by shrinking numbers of huge companies, effectively “transfer[s] resources from low-income families to high-income families.”

James K. Galbraith, Piketty's World Inequality Review: A Critical Analysis (Institute for New Economic Thinking, Jan 2, 2019)

Steven K. Vogel, Elizabeth Warren Wants to Stop Inequality Before It Starts (NY Times, Jan 3, 2019) on employee ownership in corporate equity; limitations on executives; etc.

Shensheng Wang, Why Does It Feel Good to See Someone Fail? (Salon, Jan 7, 2019) "to feel a pang of pleasure at the misfortune of others is to be human" shows an interesting psychological and spiritual dimension to the desire to believe in meritocracy

Joe Pinsker, The ‘Hidden Mechanisms’ That Help Those Born Rich to Excel in Elite Jobs (The Atlantic, Feb 26, 2019) "When two sociologists interviewed highly paid architects, TV producers, actors, and accountants, they encountered work cultures that favor the already affluent"; disproves the myth of meritocracy

Molly Roberts, Ivanka vs. AOC, and the War Over Earning It (Washington Post, Feb 28, 2019) discusses the myth of meritocracy

David Roberts, The Radical Moral Implications of Luck in Human Life (Vox, Mar 5, 2019) what you inherit by nature and nurture is not earned, but luck

Rebecca Hersher and Robert Benincasa, How Federal Disaster Money Favors The Rich (NPR, Mar 5, 2019) both disaster damage and FEMA responsiveness

John Horvat, Real Families Don’t Need Government Programs (The Imaginative Conservative, Mar 24, 2019) ironic for all the overlooking of real history of government supporting white families

Rajan Benon, American Meritocracy is a Myth (The Nation, Apr 2, 2019) higher education and political scandals show how the wealthy cheat the system to tilt the playing field, buying college admissions and economic power

Hugh Son, Citigroup CEO Corbat Defends Bank’s Pay Gap: `I Started in 1983 at $17,000′ Salary (CNBC, May 2, 2019) the dangling carrot that fuels the myth of meritocracy

Katy Scott and Henrik Pettersson, South Africa is the World's Most Unequal Country. 25 Years of Freedom Have Failed to Bridge the Divide (CNN, May 7, 2019)

Jordan Heller, One Of America’s Most Racially Unequal Cities Has A Plan To Close The Wealth Gap (Huffington Post, May 28, 2019) “The Boston Ujima Project wants to empower those left out of the economy by giving them an economy of their own” with its own currency and trading system

Jake Johnson, 'Eye-Popping': Analysis Shows Top 1% Gained $21 Trillion in Wealth Since 1989 While Bottom Half Lost $900 Billion (Common Dreams, Jun 14, 2019) “The top one percent owns nearly $30 trillion of assets while the bottom half owns less than nothing.”

Daniel Markovitz, The Meritocracy Trap: How America's Foundational Myth Feeds Inequality, Dismantles the Middle Class, and Devours the Elite (Amazon book, Sep 10, 2019) see review by Thomas B. Edsall, The Meritocracy is Under Seige (NY Times, Jun 12, 2019)

Anand Giridharadas, Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World (Amazon book, Oct 2019) and interview by The Majority Report w/ Sam Seder, Guest Destroys Bloomberg Panel On the American Dream Lie (The Majority Report w/ Sam Seder, Jan 19, 2019) how true meritocracy and democracy have been undermined by concentrations of wealth and power; see also Velshi & Ruhle, Is Taxing The Ultra-Wealthy ‘Punishing Success?’ (Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC, Feb 12, 2019)

Christian restorative justice, business, and economics: Topics

Christian restorative justice critique of the right: domestic policy topics

Christian restorative justice critique of the right: philosophical influences