The Church in White America: The Supremacists

Part of the Henry Ford exhibit on Civil Rights.  This photo is a composite of three photos taken by Mike Fritcher, Flickr, Creative Commons 2.0 (see 123).  Notice the symbol of the cross - not accidentally, for its link to white Protestantism.  The KKK refers to three movements that have advocated to varying degrees Protestant white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration, Nordicism, anti-Semitism, and anti-Catholicism.  The first Klan movement began among Protestants in the American post-Civil War South against Reconstruction.  The second Klan movement was founded in 1915 in the South and spread to urban areas in the Midwest and West.   The third and current Klan movement started in the 1950's and was organized against the Civil Rights Movement, often with Protestant theological ammunition. 

In the book list below, note that white supremacy involves more subtle Protestant errors, including:  Europeans can take land from Natives because Europeans are more productive, as John Locke taught; Transatlantic slavery is biblical and God-ordained, as many Protestants taught; white Protestants are superior in rationality and spirituality because of their pure theology; the nation-state is covenanted with God and must privilege conservative Protestant Christians; and God's justice is an infinite meritocratic-retributive justice, and He must be appeased and satisfied through human suffering, which serves as a model for public justice and, at times, completely disproportional retribution (from lynchings to child separations at the border).  Also, John Calvin reversed the biblical anti-usury principle, which eventually led to Anglo-American Protestants (further freed by Enlightenment liberalism) concentrating financial power among themselves, and placing others in unlimited indebtedness, which is explored here.

Much of white American Christianity itself has been paganized - they returned to a pre-Christian time when pagan worship was ethnic and tribal.  This is a heresy in Christian theological anthropology.  The early Christians reflected on Jesus' humanity as being for all humanity.  Only much later did ethnic-tribal ideas and behaviors creep into the Christian fold.  Protestantism had been tied to nation-building from its beginning, as rulers broke away from the Holy Roman Empire and the Catholic Church alike (Martin Luther in Germany, John Calvin in Geneva, etc.).  "Race" became tied to that nation-building effort in colonialism.  White supremacy and the Ku Klux Klan were Protestant Christian phenomena. 


the church in the americas: the church for and against the racial empires

The selection of perspectives on church history in this section has been guided by three factors: (1) to demonstrate that Christianity has not been a “white man’s religion”; (2) the study of empire as a recurring motif in Scripture by recent biblical studies scholars; and (3) explorations of biblical Christian ethics on issues of power and polity, to understand how Christians were faithful to Christ or not.  Christian relational ethics continues a Christian theological anthropology that began with reflection on the human nature of Jesus, and the human experience of biblical Israel. Resources highlighting white American Christians resisting white supremacy are listed here.

Messages and Essays on the Church in White America: The Supremacists

A Long Repentance: Exploring Christian Mistakes about Race, Politics, and Justice in the United States A series of blog posts where we explore how Christian (mostly Protestant) heresies started and continue to influence our modern political and racial challenges. This includes the very notion of race itself, and how our modern economics, housing, schooling, and policing systems have been shaped. Christians must take responsibility for these heresies in the framework of repentance.  We have designed a study guide to accompany the blog posts.  Please consider using it for personal reflection or discussion in your family, church, organization, etc.

Reflection on the Presidential Election of 2016 (Nov 30, 2016) voiced a concern about how white American evangelicals are turning towards Vladimir Putin and the Russian Orthodox Church as a model of a state-church partnership, in order to politically oppose Muslims and pro-gay voices.  This continues to unfold.  See Young Turks, Putin Spies Infiltrate Major Christian Organization (The Young Turks, Jan 11, 2019) involving "The Fellowship Foundation" aka "The Family" in Washington DC and the National Prayer Breakfast being a way to work around the State Department.  See Jonathan Larsen, At the Head of the National Prayer Breakfast, a GOP Megadonor (The Young Turks, Feb 5, 2019) re: Ron Cameron and Doug Burleigh

White American Evangelical Political Attitudes and Behavior: Explanation and Correctives White American evangelical political attitudes can be characterized by the debate between John Winthrop and Roger Williams, and their respective attitudes towards Native Americans, slavery, fairness, and faith in civic space.  This is a presentation also explores Scripture and church history to argue that Roger Williams was correct.  Given to the staff of Emmanuel Gospel Center, Apr 18, 2018, as a follow-up to how Christian restorative justice impacts ministry; audio file here

The Role of Jesus in Revolution and the Pursuit of Justice This is an evangelistic message that highlights the Christian-led and Christian-influenced non-violent resistance movements throughout the world in the 20th century.  They show the connections and spiritual vitality of Christian faith under empire or empire-like oppression.

Why Question Atheism from a Political and Moral Perspective? A presentation on how the Enlightenment tradition gave birth to racist liberal democracies on the one hand, and Marxist communism/state-capitalism on the other.  The Enlightenment tried to dethrone Christian faith from political theory and the Christian church from political power.  Thus, the ideology of the individual and the nation-state went to these two extremes, colored by the presumption of cultural, intellectual, and spiritual superiority that Europeans had about themselves.  Protestant heresies, fed by self-imposed Protestant ignorance about the church prior to Luther, and combined with a growing nationalism, accelerated the problem.  Race became the badge of membership in Empire or the token of citizenship in the Nation-State.  Authentic Christianity, therefore, must stress Pentecost (a principled cultural diversity) as the expression of Jesus' new humanity for all humanity.  

Human Dignity: Does Every Individual Matter? Science, philosophy, existentialism, other religions, and double-predestination based theologies mean that some human beings do not matter. Only a fully Trinitarian theology with a medical substitutionary atonement can provide an adequate foundation.

God as the Foundation of Human Rights (Genesis 1 - 11) Genesis 1 - 11 was aware of other Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean creation stories, and argued against them, as shown by the literary analysis of these literatures.  Topics of disagreement include:  the value of every human being; the relations of humans and God/gods; the reason for catastrophes like the Flood; the resolution or movement.

The Kingdom You No Longer Want (and ppts) A sermon on Luke 13:17 - 21 given at Neighborhood Church of Dorchester on August 13, 2017, the day after the white supremacist march in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Why Did God Choose a "Chosen People"? Why Not Just Skip Right to Jesus? an important question when considering the question of race

Slavery, Race, and Belief Systems Resources exploring the intersection of racism, slavery, and belief systems, focusing on the Trans-Atlantic slave trade to the present

Books on the Church in White America: The Supremacists

J. Kameron Carter, Race: A Theological Account (Amazon book, 2008) A sobering account of how Western Christians developed the blood theory of race, taking biblical Israel as a "race" when in reality it was a multi-ethnic faith community; important for Christians to own.  Catholic Spain suspected Jews of not truly converting to Christianity, so they emphasized Judaism as a "race" rather than a faith.  Then, in the Americas, the Spanish developed many terms to differentiate combinations of blood relations.

Willie James Jennings, The Christian Imagination: Theology and the Origins of Race (Amazon book, 2010) A brilliant storytelling of key encounters between Western Christians and African and Native American people; important for Christians to own this responsibility since colonialism and race (with natural science) went together.  See also Grawemeyer Awards, Willie James Jennings: Work on Christianity and Race Earns Religion Prize (Grawemeyer Awards, 2014)

John Locke, Two Treatises of Government (Amazon book, first published 1688) John Locke is the foremost Enlightenment political theorist who influenced the American founders.  He argued for political liberalism at home in England, defending property rights, yet argued for taking Native lands in the American colonies.  How?  With a heretical interpretation of Genesis 1, making "dominion" conditional on "development."  He also told deliberate falsehoods about the Natives.  Morag Barbara Arneil, "All the World Was America": John Locke and the American Indian (University College London, 1992) in this doctoral dissertation shows how Locke relied very selectively on travel journals and books in his library for information about Native Americans to portray them unfavorably.  Nagamitsu Miura, John Locke and the Native Americans: Early English Liberalism and Its Colonial Reality (Cambridge Scholars, 2013) writes a devastating and integrated analysis of Locke.  John Quiggin, John Locke Against Freedom (Jacobin Magazine, Jun 28, 2015) argues even more strongly that Locke legitimized expropriation and enslavement.  Quiggin notes that even SCOTUS case Keto v. City of New London, Connecticut (2005) relied on faulty Lockean assumptions. Matthew Yglesias, If Your House Is Built On Land Expropriated From Its Indigenous Inhabitants—You Didn't Build That (Slate, Sep 19, 2012) makes a brief comment on Locke; Bryan Caplan, Do Indians Rightfully Own America? (EconLog, Sep 2012) makes an argument based on the very theory of property - Lockean individualism - that is in question, showing the vulnerability of his argument.  Paul Corcoran, John Locke on the Possession of Land: Native Title vs. the ‘Principle’ of Vacuum domicilium (University of Adelaide, date unknown) attempts to exonerate Locke by attributing ignorance to him, and in any case overlooks completely the heretical nature of Locke's attempt to frame his theory of property from Genesis 1, and the English background as King Henry VIII seized Catholic land in the Dissolution of the Monasteries (see Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400-1580 and Geoffrey Moorhouse, The Last Divine Office: Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries).  An NHI blog post discussing creation and atonement demonstrates how early Christians interpreted Genesis 1 correctly, here.

Mark A. Noll, America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln (Amazon book, 2002) valuable to the subject of race and white supremacy, because English Puritans read themselves into the story of Israel entering the promised land, and produced the ideology of the national covenant.  They deployed this national covenant idea against the Native Americans externally, and to maintain religious cohesion internally.  This contributes directly to the ideas of manifest destiny and American exceptionalism, specifically, white American Protestant exceptionalism.

David Hackett Fisher, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (Amazon book, 1989) vital to understand the different groups which migrated from the British Empire to America and set regional cultures.  The Scots-Irish were extremely poor whites who came from the northern border between England and Scotland where violence regularly broke out.  They were mostly Presbyterians, accustomed to slavery and larger inequalities in wealth yet based in honor-shame relations, and violently retributive, producing the Hatfields and McCoys.  They were the dominant influence in the South and Appalachian region.  See also Cameron Joseph, The Scots-Irish Vote (The Atlantic, Oct 6, 2009); Whet Moser, American Violence and Southern Culture (Chicago Magazine, Jul 27, 2012); Kevin D. Williamson, The White Ghetto (National Review, Jan 9, 2014) referring to the Appalachian Mountain region; J.D. Vance, How the White Working Class Lost Its Patriotism (Washington Post, Jul 25, 2016) excerpted from his book J.D. Vance, Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis (Amazon book, Jun 28, 2016); reviewed by Mez McConnell, A Transatlantic Elegy for an American Hillbilly (20 Schemes, Oct 10, 2016);Rod Dreher, J.D. Vance's Straight Talk About Poverty (The American Conservative, Jul 25, 2016) and Why Liberals Love Hillbilly Elegy (The American Conservative, Aug 5, 2016).  See also Rod Dreher, The Decline and Fall of Poor Country People (The American Conservative, Jul 26, 2016) and John Daniel Davidson, The Plight Of The White Working Class Isn’t Economic, It’s Cultural (The Federalist, Aug 17, 2016). 

Ibram X. Kendi, Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America (Amazon book, Apr 12, 2016) begins his study with Cotton Mather and the New England Puritans as an example of white supremacy and white evangelicalism conjoined, especially with the so-called "curse of Ham."  Kendi draws on earlier precursors found in the ancient and medieval European worlds.

Peter Y. Choi, George Whitefield: Evangelist for God and Empire (Amazon book, Aug 7, 2018) evaluates the evangelist of the Great Awakening.  Whitefield lobbied for introducing slavery into Georgia over against John Wesley's anti-slavery stance, and despite James Oglethorpe's original vision that Georgia be a colony without slavery for resettling London's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, with up to fifty acres in a society of agrarian equality.  Choi calls attention to the ways Whitefield worked for British imperial expansion, and discusses the broader racism and imperialism of the 18th century.

Katharine Gerbner, Christian Slavery: Conversion and Race in the Protestant Atlantic World (Amazon book, Mar 5, 2018) begins with white Protestant evangelicals in the Caribbean from the 1670's.  They hardened their views of race to defend slavery - in response to other Protestant missionaries who assumed that conversion would grant an enslaved person freedom.  The slaveholders attacked the missionaries, and defended Christian slavery as beneficial for the enslaved.

Gerald Horne, The Counter-Revolution of 1776: Slave Resistance and the Origins of the United States of America (Amazon book, 2014) highlights how the British colonists in America understood how the British Empire was employing free Africans in the navy and army, moving towards abolition, and in the case of Somerset 1772, honoring the English Christian legal tradition of setting free an enslaved person who set foot on the soil of England.  They declared their independence from Britain, in part, to preserve slavery and put political-military power behind their heretical interpretation of slavery in the Bible.

Mark A. Noll, The Civil War as a Theological Crisis (Amazon book, 2006) a very readable and concise study of why, starting from the issue of slavery, American evangelicalism must be considered a heretical aberration from English-speaking Christians outside the US, and also American Catholics, who retained a rich memory of the church's abolitionist posture from its earliest times.  NHI materials on slavery are here.  See also Elizabeth L. Jemison, Proslavery Christianity After the Emancipation (Tennessee Historical Quarterly/JSTOR, Winter 2013)

Alvin Carpenter, Southern Baptists and Southern Slavery: The Forgotten Crime Against Humanity (Amazon book, 2013) the Southern Baptist Convention is the only denomination to have been created from the idea that the African, by biblical decree, was forever doomed to slavery. This book explores how such an incredible evil could have been perpetuated upon a people by the Southern Baptists and why they felt compelled to argue for the defense of the institution of slavery until the last shot was fired in the Civil War. Southern Baptists deeply believed it was a Divine right to buy and sell the African, a fact that has been buried in the annals of Southern Baptist history.

Edward J. Blum, Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865--1898 (Amazon book, 2007) Reconstruction in the American South collapsed due to Southern Protestant resistance to dismantling white supremacy, and lack of leadership in the North and at the federal and national levels.  Despite many new Catholic immigrants and new black churches, Northern and Southern white Protestants used Reconstruction to rebuild the nation around white, male Protestant leadership.  The intersection of penal substitutionary atonement with the failure of Reconstruction and race relations is offered on the NHI blog here.

Charles Reagan Wilson, Baptized in Blood: The Religion of the Lost Cause, 1865-1920 (Amazon book, 1980, 2009) examines how the unique form of white evangelical Christianity of the American South continued after the Civil War.  The "civil religion" fueled the "Lost Cause" position that the South defended "States Rights" against an overreaching federal government and Northern aggression.  "Recent scholarship affirms its continuing power in the minds of many white southerners" 

Kelly J. Baker, Gospel According to the Klan: The KKK's Appeal to Protestant America, 1915-1930 (Amazon book, 2011) Part of the troubling history showing how white supremacy and Klan movements were nourished within Protestant congregations.  See also Joshua Rothman, When Bigotry Paraded Through the Streets (The Atlantic, Dec 4, 2016) about the second KKK of 1915, subtitled "A century ago, millions of Americans banded together in defense of white, Christian America and traditional morality—and most of their compatriots turned a blind eye to the Ku Klux Klan"

Edward J. Blum and Paul Harvey, The Color of Christ: The Son of God and the Saga of Race in America (Amazon book, 2012) how the color of Jesus' skin and portrayals of Jesus were used to justify white supremacy, territorial expansion, and white imperialism.

Ida B. Wells-Barnett, On Lynchings (Amazon book, 1892) This courageous African-American journalist began her coverage of Southern lynchings with this book.  Often, Southern white Protestants lynched black men on charges of raping white women, or otherwise violating a white supremacist social order.  Notions of white female purity were taken from Christian ideas, as were exaggerated notions of male guardianship of that purity.  Note chapter two begins with Mrs. J.S. Underwood, wife of a pastor, falsely accusing a black man of entering her house, chloroforming her, and raping her.  Lynchings were often a spectacle held after church services.  An NHI blog post explores the inner connection between lynching and the idea that divine justice is retributive as articulated by penal substitutionary atonement, here.

James Q. Whitman, Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law (Amazon book, Feb 2017) and reviews by Rafael Medoff, Book Review Was Hitler Inspired by Racist American Laws? (Haaretz, Nov 2017) and Ira Katznelson, What America Taught the Nazis (The Atlantic, Nov 2017) find the devastating truth that Nazi lawyers thought that American race law was too racist for Nazi Germany.  Both Germany and the U.S. are children of Protestant mistakes and the Enlightenment's scientific racism.  One difference which must be accounted for, however, is that in Germany, Christian faith was in decline, whereas in the U.S., Christian faith was quite strong.  This means white evangelicals learned to make white supremacy co-exist with their theology.

Danielle L. McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance--A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power (Amazon book, Sep 7, 2010) narrates the history of white male sexual aggression against black women, and how that also motivated black churches and the Civil Rights Movement.  McGuire continues in the path set by Ida B. Wells and Darlene Clark Hine in calling our attention to oppression by both gender and race.

Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (Amazon book, 1995) an historical work showing how the Irish in Europe and elsewhere were not assimilated into the category of whiteness, whereas in the United States they were and did.  The Anglo-Saxon Protestant elites offered the Irish Catholics positions in the city police or working class wage-earning roles (p.189).  This strengthened the optics and social force of whiteness.  Interesting side observations about Catholic and Protestant perspectives.

David R. Roediger, Working Toward Whiteness: How America's Immigrants Became White: The Strange Journey from Ellis Island to the Suburbs (Amazon book, 2005) recounts how Jewish, Italian, Ukrainians, and Polish immigrants from the 1880's - 1930's became "white" even though the Anglo-Saxon Protestants initially rejected them.  They participated in the labor movement, the New Deal, and purchased homes.  There was also the legal construction of whiteness developed against Asian immigrants through Takao Ozawa vs. U.S. (1922) and U.S. vs. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923).

Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (Amazon book, 2017) details the long history of white racist segregation policies through both private and government agencies (federal, state, municipal), starting from the New Deal and the GI Bill.  It serves as an important backdrop to specifically white evangelical efforts to self-segregate in the realm of housing and schooling, and the enthusiastic complicity of white evangelical churches in the government-funded white-flight from the cities to the suburbs.  See for example the historical commentary by Rose Hackman, The Michigan Town Where Only Christians Are Allowed to Buy Houses (The Guardian, Feb 9, 2018).  More information on America's racist housing segregation is found on NHI's website here

Kevin M. Kruse, One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America (Amazon book, 2015) how the idea of the US as a Christian nation emerged from corporate leaders in the 1930's eager to fight the New Deal.  Eisenhower started the National Prayer Breakfast.  Congress added the phrase "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance, and made "In God We Trust" a national motto.  Church membership rose to 69 percent of the population.  See review by Ron Briley, How Corporate America Invented ‘Christian America’ to Fight the New Deal (Church and State, Mar 23, 2016)

Julie J. Ingersoll, Building God's Kingdom: Inside the World of Christian Reconstruction (Amazon book, 2015) narrates the rise of a peculiar branch of the Calvinist, Reformed tradition, led by Rushdoony, North, etc.  They see the Sinai laws, unmediated by the teaching of Jesus, as a blueprint for civil society.  This position is critiqued on the NHI blog here.

Carolyn Renee Dupont, Mississippi Praying: Southern White Evangelicals and the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1975 (Amazon book, Aug 23, 2013) shows how evangelicals in Mississippi actively rejected the Christian argument for the equality of its black citizens.  Therefore, their faith was not incidental to their white supremacy, but constitutive of it.  They mobilized against school integration after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.  See review by Matthew Tuininga, Mississippi Praying (Reformation 21, July 2015) for a summary.  See Tobin Grant, What Catalyst Started the Presbyterian Church in America? Racism(Religion News Service, Jun 30, 2016) to see the link to the PCA denomination, where the majority of Mississippi's churches joined the PCA. 

Charles Marsh, God's Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights (Amazon book, 1997) follows various Christians after the summer of 1964 in Mississippi, when violence against blacks and the murder of three civil rights workers drew national attention.  Marsh does excellent biographical work to show how Sam Bowers (KKK Grand Wizard), Fannie Lou Hamer (a black Christian activist), William Douglas Hudgins (a pastor of a church which stayed "neutral"), and others read the Bible and deployed it to defend their positions.

Mark A. Noll, God and Race in American Politics: A Short History (Amazon book, Apr 4, 2010) surveys how evangelicals used the Bible at critical moments of racial conflict in American politics:  slavery, segregation, the Civil Rights era, and the "values voting" era.  Noll points out how political parties co-opt both more and less faithful expressions of Christian ethics, while white racial structures remain unaddressed.

Darren Dochuk, From Bible Belt to Sunbelt: Plain-Folk Religion, Grassroots Politics, and the Rise of Evangelical Conservatism (Amazon book, 2011) picks up where Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath left off.  How Southern white evangelicals built white Christian institutions in the West, for example in the Billy Graham crusades, Pepperdine University, Bob Shuler and the Church of the Open Door, Fuller Theological Seminary, various radio stations, etc.  This laid the groundwork for a network of support that eventually went to Barry Goldwater, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, etc.

Jim Wallis, America's Original Sin: Racism, White Privilege, and the Bridge to a New America (Amazon book, Jan 19, 2016) and study guide (pdf) from Wallis

Frances Fitzgerald, The Evangelicals: The Struggle to Shape America (Amazon book, Apr 4, 2017) details a long history including the Southern Strategy, the Religious Right, and the compromises with the Reagan Administration.

Michael O. Emerson and Christian Smith, Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America (Amazon book, 2001) Christian sociologists show how theological hyper-individualism blinds white evangelicals from seeing sin in the form of structural racial injustice.  The study is valuable as sociology, although deeper explanations for the individualism are needed.

Oliver Raphael Phillips, Culture Trumps Religion, Every Time: The Ethno-Cultural Challenge for the Church (Amazon book, 2013)

Dominique DuBois Gilliard, Rethinking Incarceration: Advocating for Justice That Restores (Amazon book, Feb 6, 2018) finds not one, but five, pipelines to prison.  Points out that America's highly retributive culture and institutions are influenced by penal substitutionary atonement, which supposes a highly retributive, not restorative, God.  As Timothy Gorringe, God's Just Vengeance (1996) notes, wherever penal substitution goes, punitive sentencing increases; see our blog post on retributive vs. restorative justice is found here.  More resources on Christian theology intersecting with the criminal justice system can be found on our website here.  Our study and action guide to Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow can be found here

Other Articles, Websites, Videos on the Church in White America: The Supremacists

PBS, Lyman Beecher (PBS God in American Series) discusses the well-known Presbyterian pastor and social activist Lyman Beecher (1775 - 1863).  Beecher came to believe in church-state disestablishment.  Nonetheless, he was anti-Catholic and shares in the blame for the Ursuline Convent riots in Boston, and seemed to believe in manifest destiny in the American West.  He also saw abolition as too radical, and refused to admit black students into Lane Seminary, where he was president.  

Wikipedia, Paul Weyrich (Wikipedia article) one of the leaders of the white evangelical political movement from the 1960's, co-founder of The Heritage Foundation (influential right-wing think tank) and co-founder of ALEC (American Legislative Exchange Council) which writes bills, who was in favor of voter suppression; see The Young Turks, Hypocrite Mitch McConnell Cool With Suppressing Voters (The Young Turks, Jan 31 2019) at the 6:05 min mark

NBC News and Martin Luther King, Jr., 'New Phase' Of Civil Rights Struggle, 11 Months Before His Assassination (NBC News, May 8, 1967) published April 4, 2018.  King speaks of how the U.S. government gave land to white Americans in the West and Midwest to provide them with an economic base, but denied the same to black Americans 

Wikipedia, Loving v. Virginia (Wikipedia article), 1967; the federal Supreme Court case banning anti-miscegenation laws, which they deemed as an aspect of white supremacy.  The decision overturned Virginia's ban on inter-racial marriage in Commonwealth v. Loving, wherein Judge Leon M. Bazile declared, "Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, malay and red, and he placed them on separate continents. And but for the interference with his arrangement there would be no cause for such marriages. The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix." 

David D. Daniels, Why Pentecostalism's Multiethnic Beginning Floundered (Christianity Today, 1998)

A.G. Miller, A Timeline of Black Christianity Before the Civil War (Christianity Today, 1999)

Gary W. Deddo, Neighbors in Racial Reconciliation: The Contribution of a Trinitarian Theological Anthropology (2007) offers a valuable corrective

John Coffey, The Abolition of the Slave Trade: Christian Conscience and Political Action (Jubilee Centre, 2007)

Brian Bantum, Why Christians Can't Be Post-Racial: Christian Existence in the Murky Waters of Race and Place (theotherjournal blog, Aug 17, 2009)

David Goldfield, Evangelicals, Republicans, and the Civil War (NY Times, Jul 7, 2011) notes that the anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic Know-Nothing party of the 1850's, was white evangelical

Tim Keller, Racism and Corporate Evil (Desiring God, Mar 28, 2012) cites Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow and William Stuntz's The Collapse of American Criminal Justice; he acknowledges structural racism in the criminal justice system, but sadly, not in the formation of his own denomination, the Presbyterian Church of America.

Tomi Obaro, For Korean-American Pastor, Being Open-Minded Builds Relationships (Washington Post, Aug 25, 2012)

Mark Charles, A Prayer of Indigenous Peoples (blog, Apr 18, 2013)

Lisa Sharon Harper, The Cost of Being "Christian" (Sojourners, May 2013) about Richard Twiss, a Lakota/Sioux Christian

Alan Collins, Winfield Residents Upset Over Flier for Whites Only Pastors' Conference (Fox 6 News, 2012) and Kirsten West Savali, Alabama Church Holds “Whites-Only” Christian Conference (Praise 104.1 FM, 2012) and note the reliance on "religious freedom" to justify white supremacy

Rebecca Savastio, KKK Member Walks up to Black Musician in Bar-but It’s Not a Joke, and What Happens Next Will Astound You (Las Vegas Guardian Express, Nov 20, 2013)

Stoyan Zaimov, 'The Grandmother Locked in the Bedroom:' A Native American Perspective on History, Immigration, and Thanksgiving (Christian Post, Nov 28, 2013)

Elizabeth L. Jemison, Proslavery Christianity After the Emancipation(Tennessee Historical Quarterly/JSTOR, Winter 2013)

Randall Balmer, The Real Origins of the Religious Right (Politico, May 27, 2014)

Rod Dreher, Church to Orthodox Fascists: Repent! (The American Conservative, May 5, 2014)

Fred Clark, Our Job is to Unlearn the Lies We Learned from the Theologians of Slavery, Part 1 (Patheos, Jun 20, 2014) and Part 2Part 3,Part 4 an excellent perspective on the care we need to take when we select heroes from Christian history; and a reminder that white American evangelicalism drove a wedge between evangelism and social justice discipleship, which is the theology and practice many inherit today

Kay Higuera Smith, Jayachitra Lalitha, L. Daniel Hawk, Evangelical Postcolonial Conversations: Global Awakenings in Theology and Praxis (Amazon book, Jul 2014)

The Reboot, That Time When Jesus Started a Riot (The Reboot blog, Aug 14, 2014)

Alan Noble, The Evangelical Persecution Complex (The Atlantic, Aug 4, 2014) explores theological and cultural roots of a damaging attitude in the Christian community

Reggie L. Williams, Bonhoeffer's Black Jesus: Harlem Renaissance Theology and an Ethic of Resistance (Amazon book, Sep 14, 2016)

N.T. Wright, Justification, Reconciliation, Racism, and Community (Fuller Seminary video, Nov 8, 2014)

Alan Noble, Sin’s Part in the System (and Vice Versa): Thoughts on Voddie Baucham’s “Thoughts on Ferguson” (Christ & Pop Culture, Nov 28, 2014)

Greg Boyd, How Christians Should Respond to Ferguson (Reknew youtube video, Dec 3, 2014)

Napp Nazworth, Russell Moore on Racism and Southern Baptists: God Is Giving Us a Second Chance (Christian Post, Dec 18, 2014)

Mark Charles, The Doctrine of Discovery - A Buried Apology and an Empty Chair (Wirelesshogan: Reflections from the Hogan, Dec 22, 2014)

Paul Alexander, Before There Was Whiteness (Evangelicals for Social Action, Jan 12, 2015)

Greg Boyd, Thank You Obama for Denouncing "Christian" Violence: It is Actually Far Worse Than ISIS (Reknew blog, Feb 6, 2015)

Paul Harvey, Race, Culture, and Religion in the American South (Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Mar 2015) is a very helpful summary with good bibliography

Russell Moore, The Cross and the Confederate Flag (Moore to the Point blog, Jun 19, 2015) President of Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptists

David Niose, Anti-Intellectualism is Killing America (Psychology Today, Jun 20, 2015) about the lack of reasoning and morality in our culture

Carol Kuruvilla, How White Christians Used The Bible -- And Confederate Flag -- To Oppress Black People (Huffington Post, Jun 22, 2015)

Matthew Tuininga, Presbyterians and the Political Theology of Race, Part 1: Cultural Captivity? (Reformation 21, Jun 2015) notes that white Protestant Christians set the culture; they were not victims of it.  See Part 2: Old Testament Politics and Part 3: Gospel Politics

Ryan J. Cobb,, Congregational Size and Attitudes towards Racial Inequality among Church Attendees in America (Religions Journal, Jun 25, 2015)

Bradley Wright, Dear Pastor, Can I Come to Your Church? (Christianity Today, Jul 21, 2015) about the challenge of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural churches

Terry Goodrich, Racial Attitudes of Blacks in Multiracial Congregations Resemble Those of Whites, Study Finds (Baylor University, Aug 17, 2015)

Francie Diep, Multiracial Churches Cater to the White Congregants (Pacific Standard, Aug 18, 2015)  

Deborah Jian Lee, How Segregation Fueled the Evangelical Mega-Church Movement (Huffington Post, Nov 3, 2015)

Jim Wallis, Slavery Never Ended. It Just Evolved (Huffington Post, Dec 18, 2015)

Laurie Goodstein, Race, History and Baptist Reconciliation (NY Times, Jan 23, 2016)

J.N.J. Kritzinger, The Involvement of White People in the Struggle Against Racism (Kathrada Foundation, Feb 10, 2017) in the context of South Africa and Dutch colonialism

Morgan Lee, Where John Piper and Other Evangelicals Stand on Black Lives Matter (Christianity Today, May 13, 2016)

Vince Bantu, Is Christianity the White Man's Religion? (Jude3 Project, Jun 20, 2016) about Christianity in Egypt from the 2nd to 7th centuries

Tobin Grant, What Catalyst Started the Presbyterian Church of America? Racism (Religion News Service, Jun 30, 2016) In 1973, the majority of Mississippi's churches joined the PCA.

Robert P. Jones, The Eclipse of White Christian America (The Atlantic, Jul 12, 2016) and Rod Dreher, The Sun Sets on White Christian America (The American Conservative, Jul 13, 2016)

Fred Clark, Rewriting Evangelicals' Past to Preserve Our Mistakes (Patheos, Jul 18, 2016) brutal facts about white supremacy among white evangelicals

Nana Dolce, Do Racial Issues Really "Disappear" Because of the Gospel? A Response to John MacArthur (Christ and Pop Culture, Jul 26, 2016) a terrible implication of double predestination and high federal Calvinism

Adam Lee, The White Supremacist Roots of Evangelicalism (Patheos Aug 5, 2016)

Bruce Ashford, 4 Flawed Secular Models of Dealing with Racism (Bruce Ashford blog, Sep 8, 2016) Ashford is Provost and Professor of Theology and Culture at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary; significant that he admits to macro or structural racism from micro or personal decisions

Mark Charles, The Problem with the Dakota Access Pipeline (Wirelesshogan, Sep 15, 2016) discusses the "Doctrine of Discovery" from Roman Catholic papal declaration, to the US Constitution

Roland Martin, 'We're Not Going Anywhere:' Watch Roland Martin Challenge White Nationalist Richard Spencer (News One Now, Nov 22, 2016) important that Spencer claims to be a "cultural Christian"

Rev. William J. Barber II, The Racist History of Southern White Evangelicalism and the Rise of Donald Trump (Washington Post, Nov 23, 2016)

Joshua Rothman, When Bigotry Paraded Through the Streets (The Atlantic, Dec 4, 2016) about the second KKK of 1915, subtitled "A century ago, millions of Americans banded together in defense of white, Christian America and traditional morality—and most of their compatriots turned a blind eye to the Ku Klux Klan"

Todd Lake, The Dangers of White Evangelical Nostalgia (Evangelicals for Social Action, Dec 16, 2016)

Caroline Praderio, One Man Spent Years Befriending KKK Members and Persuaded 200 of Them to Leave the Group (Business Insider, Dec 28, 2016)

Michael Horton, Evangelicals Should Be Deeply Troubled by Donald Trump's Attempt to Mainstream Heresy (Washington Post, Jan 3, 2017)

Sarah Pulliam Bailey, How Nostalgia for White Christian America Drove So Many Americans to Vote for Trump (Washington Post, Jan 5, 2017)

Kenji Kuramitsu, The Lasting Trauma of Japanese American Incarceration: 75 Years After Executive Order 9066 (Sojourners, Feb 16, 2017)

Myriam Renaud, Myths Debunked: Why Did White Evangelical Christians Vote for Trump? (Chicago Divinity School, Jan 19, 2017) not abortion, but terrorism and economy

Janine Giordano Drake, Race, Class, Religion, and American Citizenship (Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Feb, 2017) a very helpful article with an extensive bibliography; invaluable as a starting point to understanding the role of religious or denominational affiliation in American history

Emma Green, These Conservative Christians Are Opposed to Trump—and Suffering the Consequences (The Atlantic, Feb 11, 2017)

Bruce Ashford, Can a Faithful Evangelical Be a Political Nationalist? (Bruce Ashford blog, Mar 13, 2017) helpful starter saying no to ethno-nationalism, qualified yes to civic nationalism; probably not to economic nationalism

Chris Ladd, Pastors, Not Politicians, Turned Dixie Republican (Forbes, Mar 27, 2017)

Gregory A. Smith, Among White Evangelicals, Regular Churchgoers Are the Most Supportive of Trump (Pew Research Center, Apr 26, 2017)

Joshua L. Lazard, How "Race Tests" Maintain Evangelical Segregation (Religion Dispatches, May 17, 2017)

Joe Carter, The FAQs: What Christians Should Know About the Alt-Right (The Gospel Coalition, Jun 14, 2017)

Tara Isabella Burton, Study: When It Comes to Detecting Racial Inequality, White Christians Have a Blind Spot (Vox, Jun 23, 2017)

Robert P. Jones, Trump Can't Reverse the Decline of White Christian America (The Atlantic, Jul 4, 2017)

Gordon Arnold, Jonathan Edwards: Founding Father of American Political Thought (The Imaginative Conservative, Aug 2017) summarizes Edwards' reliance on Augustine's view of total depravity.  Edwards believed government had no role towards non-Christians' participation in virtue, so could only restrain vice.  Thus, Edwards also argued with the Enlightenment views of John Locke but differed little in practice from Locke's view that government should defend property rights.  Edwards also maintained the Protestant heretical view of the 'national covenant' from Puritan New England, as applied to the United States as a whole.

Bruce Ashford, White Christian Conservatives Should Oppose Protests by White Supremacists (Fox News, Aug 12, 2017) in response to Virginia rally of white supremacists

Jemar Tisby, 10 Everyday Ways Charlottesville and White Supremacy Are Allowed to Still Happen (Reformed African-American Network, Aug 12, 2017)

Kevin M. Levin, The Pernicious Myth of the ‘Loyal Slave’ Lives on in Confederate Memorials (Smithsonian, Aug 17, 2017)

D.L. Mayfield, Facing Our Legacy of Lynching: How a Memorial Could Help Lead America—and Christians—to Repentance from a Dark History (Christianity Today, Aug 18, 2017)

Randall Ballmer, Under Trump, Evangelicals Show Their True Racist Colors (Los Angeles Times, Aug 23, 2017)

Brian D. McLaren, The 'Alt-Right' Has Created Alt-Christianity (Time, Aug 25, 2017)

Willie James Jennings, Can White People Be Saved? Reflections on the Relationship of Missions and Whiteness (Fuller Theological Seminary, Nov 2, 2017)

Douglas Todd, Indigenous Christianity on the Rise in Vancouver and Beyond (Vancouver Sun, Dec 7, 2017)

Amy Sullivan, America's New Religion: Fox Evangelicalism (NY Times, Dec 15, 2017)

Charles W. Mills, Black Rights / White Wrongs:  The Critique of Racial Liberalism (Amazon, 2017) re: the Enlightenment dethroning Christian tradition and building a racial ideology in its place.  See review by Christopher Lebron, Up from Rawls (The Nation, Jul 18, 2018)

Sarah Jones, Rod Dreher's Race Problem (The New Republic, Jan 25, 2018) "In wading into the shithole debate, Dreher betrays the dark side of his reverence for Western civilization"

 The Editors, Orthodox Christianity and White Supremacy In Its Own Words (Orthodoxy in Dialogue, Jan 27, 2018)

Vince Bantu, Mis-Reformed, the Imperialism of Reformed Theology (Urban Perspective, Feb 19, 2018)

Matthew Avery Sutton, Billy Graham Was on the Wrong Side of History (The Guardian, Feb 21, 2018) and Cecil Bothwell, Billy Graham and the Gospel of Fear (Counterpunch, Feb 21, 2018)

Campbell Robertson, A Quiet Exodus: Why Black Worshippers Are Leaving White Evangelical Churches (NY Times, Mar 9, 2018)

Chris Ladd, Why White Evangelicalism is So Cruel (Forbes, Mar 11, 2018) primarily about the Southern Baptist Convention originating in the white supremacy tradition of the Old South; removed from Forbes but reposted on Political Orphans

Andrew L Whitehead, Samuel L Perry, and Joseph O Baker, Make America Christian Again: Christian Nationalism and Voting for Donald Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election (Association for the Sociology of Religion, Jan 25, 2018) 

Carol Kuruvilla, Researchers Discover Common Thread Among Christians Who Voted For Trump (Huffington Post, Apr 4, 2018) re: Christian nationalists and Chauncey DeVega, Have Christian Nationalists Staged a "Soft Coup" With Trump as Their Figurehead? (Salon, Apr 5, 2018)

John Loughery, The Man Who Paved the Way for Irish America's Rise (National Review, Apr 14, 2018)

Nancy D. Wadsworth, The Racial Demons That Help Explain Evangelical Support for Trump (Vox, Apr 30, 2018)

David French, An Open Letter to Trump’s Evangelical Defenders (National Review, May 3, 2018)

Philip Bump, The Group Least Likely to Think the U.S. Has a Responsibility to Accept Refugees? Evangelicals (Washington Post, May 24, 2018)

Tara Isabella Burton, An Evangelical Christian University is Helping Make a Film That Implies God Chose Trump (Vox, May 30, 2018) re: Liberty University

Ross Douthat, The Baptist Apocalypse (NY Times, May 30, 2018) “so far the Trump presidency has clearly been a kind of apocalypse — not (yet) in the “world-historical calamity” sense of the word, but in the original Greek meaning: an unveiling, an uncovering, an exposure of truths that had heretofore been hidden”

Kenneth M. Warren, How Invisible Man Eerily Foreshadowed the Events of Today (BBC, Jun 6, 2018)

Ruth Graham, Mike Pence Gave a Trump Stump Speech to a Crowd of Southern Baptists, and It Didn’t Go Over Very Well (Slate, Jun 13, 2018) see also Jonathan Merritt, Southern Baptists Call Off the Culture War (The Atlantic, Jun 16, 2018) by moving to cut formal ties with the GOP

John Fea, Evangelical Fear Elected Trump (The Atlantic, Jun 24, 2018) a history of white evangelical fear and its influence on American politics, as well as the counter-narrative of evangelicals who held a non-nationalistic position; see also Kristin Kobes Du Mez, Understanding White Evangelical Views on Immigration (Harvard Divinity School, Spr-Sum 2018) discusses white evangelical masculinity

Ed Kilgore, Alleged Russian Spy Was Working to Infiltrate Religious Right As Well As Gun Groups (New York Magazine, Jul 18, 2018) hints at the ideological and relational connections between white American evangelicalism and Putin and the official ethno-nationalist leadership level of the Russian Orthodox Church.  See also Katherine Stewart, What Was Maria Butina Doing at the National Prayer Breakfast? America’s Christian Nationalists Have Been Finding Common Cause With the Russian Government for a While Now (New York Magazine, Jul 18, 2018)

Eugene Scott, More Than Half of White Evangelicals Say America’s Declining White Population is a Negative Thing (Washington Post, Jul 18, 2018) suggesting white American Christians never really embraced Pentecost 

Ryan Lamothe, The Moral and Spiritual Bankruptcy of White Evangelicals(Counterpunch, Jul 19, 2018) and he doesn't even explore the other Republican candidates during the primaries

Zack Beauchamp, This Conversation Explains a Vital Reason Why Trump is So Popular on the Right (Vox, Jul 24, 2018) white Protestant nationalists defend "the Christian nation"; see also German Lopez, Half of Republicans Say Increased Racial Diversity Will Be "Mostly Negative" (Vox, Jul 24, 2018) cites an important PRRI study; 43% of Republicans believe it will be mostly positive; and most Americans agree

Bob Smietana, Prosperity Gospel Taught to 4 in 10 Evangelical Churchgoers (Christianity Today, Jul 31, 2018) subtitled "Survey finds most Protestants believe God wants them to prosper financially. But views diverge on whether they must tithe to receive it" reflecting how pagan white evangelicalism is

Peter Beinart, Why Trump Supporters Believe He Is Not Corrupt (The Atlantic, Aug 22, 2018) fascism is a response to the supposed corruption of purity; meanwhile it corrupts the law

Jeff Zeleny and Kevin Liptak, Trump Warns Evangelicals of 'Violence' if GOP Loses in the Midterms (CNN, Aug 28, 2018)

Daniel Larison, Iranian Christian Asylum Seekers Remain Stuck in Limbo(The American Conservative, Sep 5, 2018) notes how the Trump administration is going back on its word to even provide asylum and refuge for Christians, without explanation

Bradley J. Birzer, What Exactly is 'the West'? (The American Conservative, Sep 6, 2018) provides an example of how 'the West' claims ownership of Christianity for its cultural achievements, such as the very real human rights stance, but does not actually follow Christianity in its insistence that we repent for the wrongs we have done (in colonialism), and without acknowledging Christian impact and presence far beyond 'the West'

Timothy Isaiah Cho, A Tale Of Two Machens: How A Christian 'Hero' Let White Privilege Color His Theology (Faithfully Magazine, Sep 8, 2018) discusses J. Gresham Machen's segregationist and white supremacist views.  Machen (1881 - 1937) was a professor at Princeton Theological Seminary from 1906 - 1929, and later founder of Westminster Theological Seminary in 1929 and the Orthodox Presbyterian Church denomination in 1933.  Machen was fairly typical of white American conservative evangelicals in his views on race, and was also a radical libertarian politically.  However, Cho also highlights B.B. Warfield (1851 - 1921), who was the lone voice for racial integration and equality at Princeton for some time. 

Katherine Stewart, A Whose Religious Liberty Is It Anyway? (NY Times, Sep 8, 2018)

Michael Gerson, Christians Are Suffering From Complete Spiritual Blindness (Washington Post, Sep 10, 2018) about John MacArthur and other white evangelicals saying that social justice is not part of the gospel

Tom Porter, The Christian Right Is Looking to Putin's Russia to Save Christianity From the Godless West (Newsweek, Sep 15, 2018)

Ross Douthat, Conservatism After Christianity (NY Times, Sep 15, 2018) has a glimmer of good news: Christian conservatives are less racist than secular conservatives; see also Emily Ekins, The Liberalism of the Religious Right (NY Times, Sep 19, 2018)

Jill Lepore, These Truths: A History of the United States (Amazon book, Sep 18, 2018) 900+ page history with an eye on current questions; review by Andrew Sullivan, The American Past: A History of Contradictions (NY Times, Sep 14, 2018) see especially Civil War history

Maggie Haberman, He’s ‘One of Us’: The Undying Bond Between the Bible Belt and Trump (NY Times, Oct 14, 2018)

Tara Isabella Burton, Prominent Evangelical Leader on Khashoggi Crisis: Let’s Not Risk “$100 Billion Worth of Arms Sales” (Vox, Oct 17, 2018) re: Pat Robertson's defense of Trump and US-Saudi relations, being dependent on the military-industrial state; Robertson was speaking at Regent University, where he is Chancellor; Robertson's evangelical media group Christian Broadcasting Network has become a propaganda arm for Trump. See also Hugh Hewitt, How the Navy Could Be Torpedoing Trump’s Chances in 2020 (Washington Post, Aug 17, 2019) for another example of white evangelical reliance on the military-industrial state, this time to “provide jobs” in swing states. Kevin Drum, Let’s Make the Military Into a Trump Reelection Machine! (Mother Jones, Aug 19, 2019) criticizes “modern conservatism,” but he could criticize white evangelicals in particular.

John C. Richard, Jr., For Blacks, Lies Matter: Black Christians, The Trump Presidency, and New Research (Christianity Today, Oct 18, 2018) Trump's approval rating is 3% among African-Americans 

Samuel Smith, Most White Evangelicals Say Immigration, Increasing Racial Diversity Harms America (The Christian Post, Oct 30, 2018) and Carol Kuruvilla, New Study Reveals White Evangelicals’ Troubling Beliefs On Race And Immigration (Huffington Post, Nov 5, 2018)

Nicholas K. Geranios, The GOP Lawmaker Shares Document Calling For ‘Holy Army’ To Kill Men Who Flout Biblical Law (Huffington Post, Nov 4, 2018) "Washington Rep. Matt Shea (R-Spokane) on Friday said he didn’t mean to promote violence, but some of his donors aren’t buying it"

News Division, The Biblical Answer to Migrant Caravan is Bombs and Bullets (Pulpit and Pen, Nov 2, 2018) an appalling mishandling of Scripture 

Michael Brown, Midterm Talking Points for Pro-Trump Evangelicals(Stream, Nov 5, 2018)  

Carol Kuruvilla, Evangelical Pastor Claims Trump’s Immigration Policies Are Biblical (Huffington Post, Nov 6, 2018)  Tony Perkins, president of the Family Research Council, praised Trump's hardline stance on immigration

Wes Granberg-Michaelson, The Most Disheartening Survey of Voters(Sojourners, Nov 6, 2018) stats on white evangelicals

Adam Kotsko, The Political Theology of Trump (N+1 Magazine, Nov 7, 2018) surveys various biblical passages often considered by white evangelicals, and concludes, "there is not much that any of us can do to convince evangelical Trump supporters that their anointed one is an antichrist"

Jon Swaine, Matthew Whitaker: Acting Attorney General Said Judges Should Be Christian (The Guardian UK, Nov 8, 2018)

Aaron Schrank, Immigrant Communities Were The 'Geographic Solution' To Predator Priests (NPR, Nov 8, 2018)

Sky Palma, The Christian Prophet Is Baffled That God Didn't Fulfill His 'Red Tsunami' Midterms Prediction: 'I Know What God Told Me!'(DeadState, Nov 9, 2018)

William Saletan, Trump's Christian Apologists Are Unchristian (Salon, Nov 25, 2018) "Polls show that on immigration, race, and poverty, white evangelical Protestants have surrendered moral judgment and social responsibility"

Brad Mason, Then & Now: The Conservative Presbyterian Race Debate in 1964 (Bradly Mason blog, Nov 26, 2018) very good historical material focused on a narrow time frame in the 20th century

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, The Report on Slavery and Racism in the History of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (SBTS, Dec 12, 2018) and Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove, A Southern Baptist Seminary Just Admitted its Slave-Owning Past. But It Didn’t Touch the Theology Behind It. (Washington Post, Dec 13, 2018)

Nina Burleigh, Evangelical Christians Helped Elect Donald Trump, but Their Time as a Major Political Force Is Coming to an End (Newsweek, Dec 13, 2018)

Sean Illing, Reciprocal Rage: Why Islamist Extremists and the Far Right Need Each Other (Vox, Dec 26, 2018) and resemble each other; Christians also implied

Katherine Stewart, Why Trump Reigns as King Cyrus (NY Times, Dec 31, 2018) "The Christian right doesn’t like the president only for his judges. They like his style."

Joe Heim, Evangelical Jerry Falwell Jr. Can’t Imagine Trump ‘Doing Anything That’s Not Good for the Country’ (NY Times, Jan 1, 2019) and Hemant Mehta, Jerry Falwell, Jr.: There’s Nothing Trump Can Do to Lose My Support (Patheos, Jan 1, 2019)

Eric Levitz, How American Exceptionalism Is a Dangerous Myth (NY Magazine, Jan 2, 2019) involving American foreign policy; American exceptionalism is based on the Puritan "national covenant" myth

John Fea, Trump Evangelicals Long For American Past That Only Existed For Whites (Faithfully Magazine, Jan 9, 2019) gives concrete legal details about white evangelical Christianity's dominance

Young Turks, Putin Spies Infiltrate Major Christian Organization (The Young Turks, Jan 11, 2019) involving "The Fellowship Foundation" aka "The Family" in Washington DC and the National Prayer Breakfast being a way to work around the State Department. This confirms my concern which I wrote about in my Reflection on the Presidential Election of 2016, in November 2016.

Trevor Noah, Is Rep. Steve King Racist? Enter Trevor Noah: Racism Detective (The Daily Show, Jan 15, 2019) an entertaining take on a serious issue:  the monopolistic appropriation of Christianity (and other things) by whites in the name of "Western European culture"

Tré Goins-Phillips, Evangelical Pastor Robert Jeffress Defends Trump: ‘Heaven Itself Is Gonna Have a Wall’ (FaithWire, Jan 10, 2019) absurd because the walls of the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation have open gates

Leonardo Blair, Administrator Who Tried to Rig Online Polls for Trump 'Made Great Contributions,' Liberty University Says (The Daily Show, Jan 15, 2019) a disturbing allegation

Jemar Tisby, The Color of Compromise: The Truth About the American Church’s Complicity in Racism (Amazon book, Jan 22, 2019) and review by Emma Green, Closing the Gulf Between Black and White Christians (The Atlantic, Jan 29, 2019) and summary by Chante Griffin, 8 Unpopular Truths About US Christianity, According to Jemar Tisby’s ‘The Color of Compromise’ (Faithfully Magazine, Apr 2019)

Rod Dreher, Rene Girard & the Covington Catholic Boys (The American Conservative, Jan 27, 2019) although Dreher gives a good summary of Girard's thought, he maintains a false opposition between Christianity and progressivism, or Christianity and racial justice.  One need only ask whether Christian faith requires repentance and restitution for colonialism.

Rebecca Morin, Sarah Sanders: God Wanted Trump to Become President (Politico, Jan 30, 2019)

Stephen Mattson, White Christian Nationalism — Not Secularism — Is Destroying America (Sojourners, Feb 4, 2019)

Michael Stone, Conservative Christians Claim Ocasio-Cortez Is A Witch Leading Attack Against Trump (Patheos, Feb 20, 2019)

Matthew Continetti, What to Do About the Rebirth of Socialism (The American Conservative, Feb 16, 2019) is a good example of the white American assumption that Judaic and Christian moral values would stand against the raw materialism of capitalism; but fails to see that Judaism and Christianity were already damaged and wounded and twisted into heretical form by colonialism and capitalism

Hasan Minhaj, Civil Rights (Patriot Act, Mar 3, 2019) on Trump's Cabinet members dropping civil rights cases:  Departments of Justice (by Jess Sessions, a Baptist), Housing and Urban Development (by Ben Carson, a Seventh Day Adventist), Education (by Betsy DeVos, a Dutch Reformed Presbyterian), Health and Human Services, Commerce (which oversees the U.S. Census)

Philip Schwadel and Gregory A. Smith, Evangelical Approval of Trump Remains High, But Other Religious Groups Are Less Supportive (Pew Research Center, Mar 18, 2019)

Jemar Tisby, White Evangelical Support for Trump Comes from Churchgoers, Not EINOs (Religion News Service, Mar 19, 2019)

Murali Balaji, White Christian Nationalism May Not Be Religious, But It Is Christian (Rewire News, Mar 21, 2019)

Adam Gopnik, How the South Won the Civil War (The New Yorker, Apr 1, 2019) “During Reconstruction, true citizenship finally seemed in reach for black Americans. Then their dreams were dismantled.” Does not note the role of white churches.

Julie Zauzmer, The Alleged Synagogue Shooter Was a Churchgoer Who Talked Christian Theology, Raising Tough Questions for Evangelical Pastors (Washington Post, May 1, 2019) suggests that a particular combination of beliefs is dangerous: a hard “replacement” theology of Church and Israel; high federal Calvinist predestination (which both functionally removes human personal responsibility and therefore “guilt” in any sense, and makes God the functional cause of human actions, including the Jewish leadership at the time of Jesus). This does not necessitate, but does open the way to a racialized, nationalized version of “covenant” which has been a problem for Calvinists. To see an exegetical counter to the hard replacement theology, see this examination of Matthew 21:1 - 17.

Matthew Avery Sutton, The Day Christian Fundamentalism Was Born (NY Times, May 25, 2019) how white, conservative Protestants afraid of science and persecution tied together white supremacy, end-times theology, nationalism, and Zionism.

Peter Kruger (JD from Mitchell Hamline School of Law 2017), Why Did Evangelical Leaders Endorse Trump Despite His Unequivocally Divisive Rhetoric? (Quora, Jul 24, 2019) a personal account starting from his college days with Cru, and his experience with evangelicals being so suspicious of the left that they disbelieved facts presented by the media

Nurith Aizenman, Malaka Gharib, American With No Medical Training Ran Center For Malnourished Ugandan Kids. 105 Died (NPR, Aug 9, 2019) a self-appointed white American evangelical “missionary” demonstrates the cost of white supremacist attitudes and funding sources in Christian missionary work

Tara Isabella Burton, The Religious Hunger of the Radical Right (NY Times, Aug 13, 2019)

E.J. Dionne, Jr., Trump is Weaponizing Evangelicals’ Mistrust. And He’s Succeeding. (Washington Post, Aug 21, 2019)

Brian Zahnd, Trumped (Brian Zahnd blog, Aug 22, 2019) an excellent critique of white nationalism and Christian nationalism from a personal and pastoral point of view

Sarah Jones, What ‘The Family’ Reveals About White Evangelicals, Donald Trump, and the ‘Wolf King’ (Vulture, Aug 29, 2019)

David Scharfenberg, How Donald Trump Just Might Save the Republican Party — and the Country (Boston Globe, Sep 6, 2019) identifies evangelicals Marco Rubio, who gestures towards a genuine economic nationalism over against neo-conservative and neo-liberal trade policies that decimated American manufacturing, and Josh Hawley, who is an evangelical culture warrior. Note the presence of Yoram Hazony and Amy Wax at the National Conservatism Conference, who argue for “cultural compatibility” in immigration.

Brandon Ambrosino, ‘Someone’s Gotta Tell the Freakin’ Truth’: Jerry Falwell’s Aides Break Their Silence (Politico, Sep 9, 2019) “More than two dozen current and former Liberty University officials describe a culture of fear and self-dealing at the largest Christian college in the world.” See also commentary by David French, Jerry Falwell Jr. Shows How the Advance of Christendom Can Harm Christianity (National Review, Sep 11, 2019)

Derek Thompson, Three Decades Ago, America Lost Its Religion. Why? (The Atlantic, Sep 26, 2019) “Not religious has become a specific American identity—one that distinguishes secular, liberal whites from the conservative, evangelical right.” “According to Christian Smith, a sociology and religion professor at the University of Notre Dame, America’s nonreligious lurch has mostly been the result of three historical events: the association of the Republican Party with the Christian right, the end of the Cold War, and 9/11.”

Akbar Shahid Ahmed, Khashoggi’s Murder Should Have Made Saudi Arabia A Pariah. 7 Men Made Sure That Didn’t Happen. (Huffington Post, Oct 9, 2019) “On Sept. 10, MBS sat down with a nine-member Christian delegation that included Johnnie Moore of Trump’s evangelical advisory board and the U.S. government commission on religious freedom; Christian media executive Wayne Pederson; and former GOP gubernatorial candidate John Kenneth Blackwell… [and] Joel Rosenberg, a prolific author writing primarily for a Christian readership who runs an Israel-focused nonprofit called the Joshua Fund… “The Saudis have our number as far as the Americans and know that the evangelical community is politically salient, coherent, very important for the current administration and important for Republicans since the 1980s,” said Annelle Sheline, a fellow at Rice University’s Baker Institute who studies how Arab monarchies treat religion.”

Joy Reid, Barr Delivers Speech on Religious Freedom at Notre Dame Law School (AM Joy | MSNBC, Oct 14, 2019) blamed drug abuse, violence, and mental illness on “secularists” and society’s lack of Christian values, which is a white supremacist and heretical argument, given all the heretical views lived out by white Protestants

Rod Dreher, Bill Barr: Religious Liberty Warrior (The American Conservative, Oct 14, 2019) Dreher exemplifies how conservative Christians use the term “religious liberty” to disguise what they want: “conservative Christian privilege.” Dreher does not distinguish between parents being able to pass down the faith to their children (which is still very much legal and not threatened), and having your faith reinforced throughout the public sphere (schools, etc.) in the “Christendom model.” Dreher does not understand how Christians can argue for “human rights without theocracy” in the tradition of Roger Williams and therefore embrace political pluralism on behalf of others. Dreher also fails to recognize how Barr’s contribution to executive overreach and non-accountability (see Jeremy Stahl, DOJ: If Watergate Happened Today, We’d Block Evidence From Congress (Slate, Oct 8, 2019)) steps far outside of the development of Jewish law, as well as Christian character-based meritocracy found in Scripture, Christian monasticism, Christian religious orders, and Christian ethics translated for public service. Utterly disappointing.

Gabby Orr, Karen Pence Sticks Her Neck Out for Trump to Protect Her Husband (Politico, Oct 17, 2019) “After questions swirled about whether Mike Pence would remain on Trump’s 2020 ticket, the second lady reemerged as a loyal campaigner for the president” through her promotion on social media

the church in the americas: for and against the racial empires

church and empire: reflections on faithfulness and compromise: topics